Macrominerals

Macrominerals

Sodium

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Sodium is a nutrient (macro-mineral). It is a metallic element which is an important constituent of the human body. Sodium plays a major role in water balance.

Iron

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Iron is a nutrient (macro-mineral). Iron is a mineral that the human body uses to produce the red blood cells (hemoglobin) that carry oxygen throughout the body. It is also stored in myoglobin, an oxygen-carrying protein in the muscles that fuels cell growth.

Phosphorus

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Phosphorus is a nutrient (an essential macro-mineral) occurring in tissues and foods as phosphate (salts of phosphoric acid), phospholipids, and phosphoproteins. In the body most (80%) is present in the skeleton and teeth as calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite); the remainder is in the phospholipids of cell membranes, in nucleic acids, and in a variety of metabolic intermediates, including ATP. The parathyroid hormone controls the concentration of phosphate in the blood, mainly by modifying its excretion in the urine.

Magnesium

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Magnesium is a nutrient, an essential macro-mineral; present in all human tissues, especially bone. Involved in the metabolism of ATP. Present in chlorophyll and so in all green plant foods, and therefore generally plentiful in the diet. Deficiency in human beings leads to disturbances of muscle and nervous system; in cattle, to grass tetany. Magnesium-deficient plants are yellow (or chlorosed).

Calcium

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A basic element, with an atomic weight of 40.07, found in nearly all organized tissues. Essential for mineralization of bone and teeth. The normal level of calcium in the blood is 9 to 11.5 mg/100 ml. A deficiency of calcium in the diet or in use may lead to rickets or osteoporosis. Overexcretion in hyperparathyroidism leads to osteoporotic manifestations.

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