Enkephalin

Acupuncture Analgesia: A Review of Its Mechanisms of Actions

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The mechanism of acupuncture analgesia (AA) has been widely explored since the 1970s. Early studies investigated the relationship between acupuncture and endogenous opiates (?-endorphin, enkephal...

The HPA Axis: The "Home" of Alcoholism

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The article focuses on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which is said to be the home of alcoholism. A test has been conducted to monitor the performance of this axis under various co...

The Effect of Minerals on Pain

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The article focuses on the effects of mineral deficiencies on pain. The deficiency in copper affects the endogenous control of pain perception because it lowers enkephalin levels. Magnesium defic...

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