The Revolving Door Between the US Government and the Pharmaceutical Industry

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The Revolving Door Between the Pharmaceutical Industry and Government


 

Conflict of Interest: The Revolving Door Between the US Government and the Pharmaceutical Industry

The revolving door refers to the phenomenon in which employees of private companies become government bureaucrats or government bureaucrats become employees of private companies. This is a gross conflict of interest as employees of private companies are appointed to positions to oversee the industry they used to work in. Conversely, government bureaucrats pass policies and laws that are favourable to a particular company or industry and later quit their government posts to work for the same company or industry. This is a form of delayed bribery in which private companies are saying, "Pass regulations and laws that are favourable to our company and when you quit your government post, we'll offer you a well-paying position."

This page highlights the revolving door between U.S. government
agencies, the U.S. Congress, and the pharmaceutical industry. The following
former government officials now work at IFPMA, PhRMA, or law firms and lobbying firms that
represent the pharmaceutical industry. The information on clients represented by the following
individuals is heavily indebted to the Center for Responsive Politics website.

Corrections or suggestions to Mike Palmedo
mpalmedo@cptech.org.

The Players
Government Employer 
Private Sector Employer
 Client(s) Represented
  Justin McCarthy     USTR - Assistant USTR for Congressional Affairs     Pfizer, Assistant Director of Government Relations      
  Billy Tauzin     U.S. Congress    PhRMA, President      
  Claude Burcky     USTR     Abbott Laboratories,
 
   
 Sean Darragh     USTR    Biotechnology Industry Organization,
PhRMA 
  .  
 Randall L. Tobias     White House - Global AIDS Coordinator
 
 Eli Lilly    .  
  Michael Friedman   Food and Drug Administration,
Acting Commissioner
  PhRMA
Pharmacia
 
  Donald Rumsfield     Secretary of Defense
 
 Gilead,
G. D. Searle  
  .  
  Deborah Steelman    White House Budget Director

Advisor to George W. Bush campaign,

President Bush Sr.'s Chairman of the Quadrennial Advisory Council on Social Security
and Medicare,

White House staff position in Reagan administrations 
  Eli Lilly,
Steelman Health Industries
Aetna

American Home Products

Bristol Myers Squib

Health Industry Manufacturers Association

Humana

Johnson and Johnson

Pfizer

PhRMA
  Mitchell Daniels Jr.    Director, Office of Management and Budget    Eli Lilly .
  Raymond V. Gilmartin    Bush Transition Team for the Department of Health and Human Services    Merck .
  Anne Marie Lynch    Bush Transition Team for the Department of Health and Human Services   PhRMA .
  Bill Walters    Bush Transition Team for the Department of Health and Human Services   PhRMA .
 Gerald J. Mossinghoff    Assistant Secretary of Commerce, Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks   Oblon, Spivak, McClelland, Maier & Neustadt.  PhRMA
 Dr. Harvey E. Bale, Jr  USTR   IFPMA .
 Alan F. Holmer   Deputy Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental
Affairs, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Import Administration-Commerce Department,
General Counsel-USTR, Deputy U.S. Trade Representative  
 PhRMA  .
 Susan K. Finston   State   PhRMA  .
 Daniel L. Spiegel   US Permanent Representative to the  U.N.,
State, Legislative Assistant to Senator Hubert Humphrey and Senator Alan Cranston  
 Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P.  American Home Products
 Donald C. Alexander  Commissioner of Internal Revenue,  Department of the
Interior
 Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P.  Johnson & Johnson
 S. Bruce Wilson   Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Intellectual Property, Services and Investment,
Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Industry and Services, Staff Director-Subcommittee on Trade (House),
Democratic Trade Counsel-Subcommittee on Trade (House)
 Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P.  American Home Products
 Edward J. Allera  FDA  Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P.  Johnson & Johnson
 Frank J. Donatelli  USAID, Deputy Assistant to President Reagan for Public Liaison,
Assistant to President Reagan for Political and Intergovernmental Affairs
 Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P.  Johnson & Johnson
 Barney J. Skladany, Jr.  Department of Justice  Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P.  Johnson & Johnson, Warner-Lambert
 Thaddeus J. Burns   USPTO, U.S. Intellectual Property Attach?-USTR, Geneva   Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P .
 Elizabeth A. Hyman  Special Assistant to Attorney General Janet Reno, Associate Counsel to Vice President Al Gore,
Assistant Counsel-USTR,
 Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P  American Home Products
 Howard H. Baker, Jr.  Senator (R-Tennessee), Chief of Staff to President Reagan  Baker, Donelson, Bearman & Caldwell  Schering-Plough
 J. Keith Kennedy  Staff Director of the Committee on Appropriations for Senator Mark O. Hatfield (R-Oregon)
 Baker, Donelson, Bearman & Caldwell  PhRMA, Schering-Plough
 George C. Montgomery  U.S. Ambassador to Oman, Counsel to Senate Majority Leader Sen. Howard H. Baker (R-Tennessee), Legislative Staffer for Sen. Baker  Baker, Donelson, Bearman & Caldwell  Schering-Plough
 John C. Tuck  Under Secretary-Department of Energy, Assistant to President Reagan, Deputy Assistant to the President
for Legislative Affairs, Executive Assistant to the Chief of Staff
 Baker, Donelson, Bearman & Caldwell  Schering-Plough
 Peter Barton Hutt  Chief Counsel-FDA  Covington & Burling  PhRMA, Nonprescription Drug Manufacturers Association
 Bruce N. Kuhlik  Department of Justice  Covington & Burling  Merck, PhRMA, and Nonprescription Drug Manufacturers Association
 Jeanne S. Archibald  General Counsel-Department of Treasury, USTR  Hogan & Hartson, L.L.P.  PhRMA
 Stephan E. Lawton  Chief Counsel of the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the United States House of
Representatives
 Hogan & Hartson, L.L.P.  Amgen, Genentech
 Robert P. Brady  Associate Chief Counsel for Biologics-FDA, Executive Assistant to the Commissioner of the
Food and Drug Administration
 Hogan & Hartson, L.L.P.  Genentech
 Michael R Pollard  Federal Trade Commission  Michaels & Bonner, P.C  Merck
 Thomas D. Parry  Chief of Staff and Chief Counsel to Senator Orrin
G. Hatch (R-Utah)
 Parry and Romani Associates  Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol- Myers
Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome,  Hoechst Marion Roussel, Hoffman- LaRoche,
ICN Pharmaceuticals, Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto, 
Pfizer, PhRMA,  Pharmacia & Upjohn, Schering-Plough,  and
SmithKline Beecham
 Romano Romani  Legislative Director and Staff Director for Senator
Vance Hartke (D-Indiana) and Senator  Dennis DeConcini (D-Arizona)
 Parry and Romani Associates  Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol- Myers
Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome,  Hoechst Marion Roussel, Hoffman- LaRoche,
ICN Pharmaceuticals, Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto, 
Pfizer, PhRMA,  Pharmacia & Upjohn, Schering-Plough, and SmithKline
Beecham
 Dennis DeConcini  Senator (D-Arizona)  Parry and Romani Associates  Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol- Myers
Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome,  Hoechst Marion Roussel, ICN Pharmaceuticals,
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto,  Pfizer, Pharmacia
& Upjohn, Schering-Plough, and SmithKline Beecham
 Edward H. Baxter  Department of the Interior, Chief  Counsel
and Staff Director to the Subcommitte on Patents, Copyrights, and Trademarks,
Counsel to Senate Judiciary Committee
 Parry and Romani Associates  Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol- Myers
Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome,  Hoechst Marion Roussel, Hoffman- LaRoche,
ICN Pharmaceuticals, Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto, 
Pfizer, PhRMA,  Pharmacia & Upjohn, Schering-Plough, and SmithKline
Beecham
 Jack W. Martin  FDA  Parry and Romani Associates  Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol- Myers
Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome,  Hoechst Marion Roussel, ICN Pharmaceuticals,
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto,  Pfizer, 
Pharmacia & Upjohn, Schering-Plough,  and SmithKline Beecham
 Linda A. Skladany   OSHA, Special Assistant to President Reagan, Deputy
Director of the White House Office of Public Liaison, Department
of Transportation,Department of Education
 Parry and Romani Associates  Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol- Myers
Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome,  Hoechst Marion Roussel, Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto,  Pfizer, Pharmacia
& Upjohn, Schering-Plough, and SmithKline Beecham
 Shannon S. Davis  Legislative Assistant to Congressman Sam Johnson
(R-TX)
 Parry and Romani Associates  Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol- Myers
Squibb, Hoechst Marion Roussel, Hoffman- LaRoche, Interneuron Pharmaceuticals,
Metagenics, Monsanto,  Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Schering-Plough, 
and SmithKline Beecham
 Judith A. Butler  Chief of Staff to three former Republican Members of Congress  Podesta.com  Genentech, Genzyme
 Elizabeth A. Inadomi  Staff Counsel to the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and
Transportation, Counsel to the U.S. House Subcommittee on Space
 Podesta.com  Genentech, PhRMA
 Claudia James  Senior Legislative Assistant to Congressman Peter Peyser,
Judiciary Legislative Assistant to Congressman Chris Dodd.
 Podesta.com  Genentech, PhRMA
 Drew Littman  Former policy director to Senator Barbara Boxer (D-California)  Podesta.com  Genentech, PhRMA
 Anthony Podesta  Counsel to Senator Edward M. Kennedy (D-Massachusetts),
Assistant U.S. Attorney for the District of Columbia
 Podesta.com  Genentech, Genzyme, PhRMA
 Lee Skillington   USPTO   Powell, Goldstein, Frazer, & Murphy LLP  PhRMA
 Jeffrey Kushan   USPTO, USTR   Powell, Goldstein, Frazer, & Murphy LLP  Merck
 Barry B. Direnfeld   Chief Legislative Counsel to Sen. Howard M. Metzenbaum (D-Ohio),
Chief Counsel and Staff Director of the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on
Antitrust, Monopolies, and Business Rights 
 Swidler Berlin Shereff Friedman LLP   Transkaryotic Therapies
 Lester S. Hyman   U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission,
the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development,
Secretary of Commerce,Chairman of the Democratic Party of Massachusetts 
 Swidler Berlin Shereff Friedman LLP   Schering-Plough, SmithKline Beecham
 H.P. Goldfield   Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Trade
Development, Associate Counsel to
the President, Assistant Counsel-White House 
 Swidler Berlin Shereff Friedman LLP   SmithKline Beecham, Transkaryotic Therapies
 Richard A. Popkin    Deputy for Policy to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Trade Administration   Swidler Berlin Shereff Friedman LLP   SmithKline Beecham
 Gary D. Slaiman   Chief counsel and Staff director for the U.S. Senate
Labor and Human Resources Subcommittee on Labor, Counsel to the Senate Judiciary
Subcommittee on Antitrust 
 Swidler Berlin Shereff Friedman LLP   Transkaryotic Therapies


 


Billy Tauzin

Government Employer
As a Member of the House of Representatives (R-LA), Billy Tauzin was the
Chairman of the powerful House Energy and Commerce Committee. This committee
was heavily involved in drafting the medicare drug benefit

Private Sector Employer

In January 2005, he became President of PhRMA

Source:
PhRMA Press Release,
- and
Tauzin Changes Sides,
editorial in
Newsday, January, 2005.


Justin McCarthy

Government Employer

Assistant USTR for Congressional Affairs

Private Sector Employer

Since 2003, Mr. McCarthy has served as Director of Government Relations
for Pfizer. Prior to that, he was Assistant Director of Government
Relations (2001-2003). During his time at Pfizer, Mr. McCarthy was
responsible for international trade, intellectual property and tax
issues. In addition to his corporate responsibilities, Mr. McCarthy
served as Co-Chair of the Business Coalition for U.S.-Central America
Trade which was charged with ensuring Congressional approval of DR-CAFTA.

Source:
PhRMA press release


Claude Burcky

Government Employer

USTR, Assistant USTR for Intellectual Property

Private Sector Employer

Abbott Laboratories, Director of Global Government Affairs

Source: John Garnaut and Marian Wilkinson.
Plum Jobs for US Trade Deal Advisors.
Sydney Morning Herald July 2004.


Sean Darragh

Government Employer

Sean Darragh was a Principal Negotiator
at the Office of U.S. Trade Representative where he managed the agricultural and life sciences
division. He was Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense at the Pentagon,
where he oversaw export policies into Latin America.

Private Sector Employer

Deputy Vice President of International Affairs at the Pharmaceutical Research and
Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) where he led advocacy, alliance development and public
affairs initiatives in the United States and abroad on intellectual property and WTO matters.
He left PhRMA in 2003 to join the Biotechnology Industry Organization as the
Executive Director for BIO?s Food and Agriculture section.

Source:
BIO press release


Randall L. Tobias

Government Employer

Randall Tobas is the first United States Global AIDS Coordinator. This position is
part of the Department of State, and carries the rank of Ambassador. On January 19, 2006
he was nominated to the position of Director of United States Foreign Assistance, and
he is awaiting confirmation.

Private Sector Employer

From 1993 - 1999, Randall Tobias was President, Chairman and CEO of Eli Lilly.

Source:
Department of State Bio.


Donald Rumsfield

Government Employer

Donald Rumsfield is President Bush's Secretary of Defense. During the
Ford Administration, he held the post of White House Cheif of Staff
(1974-75) and then he became Ford's Secretary of Defense (1975-77).

Private Sector Employer

From 1977 to 1985 he served as Chief Executive Officer, President, and
then Chairman of G.D. Searle & Co. From 1993 to 2000, he was Chairman
of Gilead Sciences.

Source:
Department of Defense Bio.


Michael Friedman

Government Employer

Dr. Michael Friedman was the Acting Commissioner of the FDA from 1997-1998.
He is also a reservist in the Public Health Service, where he once had the
rank of Rear Admiral and Assistant Attorney General.

Private Sector Employer

Dr. Michael Friedman is a Senior Vice President of the Pharmacia
Corporation. He is also PhRMA's Chief Medical Officer for Biomedical Preparedness.

Source:
PhRMA Press Release.


Mitchell Daniels Jr.

Government Employer

Mr. Daniels has been named by President Bush to head the Office of Management and Budget.
In the past, he has worked as a senior advisor to Senator Richard Lugar and President Reagan.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Daniels joined Eli Lilly in 1990. In 1993 he became the company's president of
North American pharmaceutical operations. In 1997, he was named senior vice president
of corporate strategy and policy. Before joining Eli Lilly, he was the president and CEO of
the Hudson Institute.

Source: Eli Lilly Press Release:
Daniels named to Bush Cabinet-Level Post.
Dec. 22, 2000.



Raymond V. Gilmartin

Government Employer

Mr. Gilmartin was appointed to the Bush/Cheney transition team for the
Department of Healthand Human Services.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Gilmartin joined Merck in 1976, starting as the vice president of
strategic planning. In 1994 he was named Chairman and CEO. Prior to his employment
at Merck, he was Chairman and CEO of Becton Dickinson. Mr. Gilmartin is the current
chairman of the Healthcare Institute of New Jersy and of the Valley Health System, Inc.,
as well as a former chairman of PhRMA. He is chairman of the Council on
Competitiveness and is on the board of associates of the Harvard Business
School. He is a director of The College Fund/UNCF, and a member of
the Business Roundtable, the Business Council. He also sits on
the boards of directors of General Mills, Inc. and the Public Service
Enterprise Group, Inc.

Source:
Merck Bio.


Gerald J. Mossinghoff

Government Employer

Mr. Mossinghoff was a former Assistant Secretary of Commerce
and Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks under the Reagan administration
from 1981 to 1985. Mr. Mossinghoff claims he advised President Reagan on
the establishment of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Mr.
Mossinghoff represented the United States as Ambassador to the Diplomatic
Conference on the Revision of the Paris Convention and as Chairman of the
General Assembly of WIPO.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Gerald J. Mossinghoff is currently Senior Counsel
for the law firm of Oblon, Spivak, McClelland, Maier & Neustadt. In
1998, Mr. Mossinghoff was a registered lobbyist for PhRMA. Prior to joining
Oblon Spivak, Mr. Mossinghoff joined the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association
(PMA- now PhRMA) in 1985, as president.

Source:
Oblon
Spivak Attorney Locator


Dr. Harvey E. Bale, Jr.

Government Employer

Dr. Harvey E. Bale, Jr. worked at the United States Trade
Representative (USTR) for twelve years.

Private Sector Employer

Dr. Harvey E. Bale, Jr. is currently Director-General
of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations
(IFPMA). IFPMA is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and represents research-based
pharmaceutical companies worldwide. Prior to his career at IFPMA, Harvey
Bale was the Senior Vice-President of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers
of America (PhRMA); he joined PhRMA in 1989.

Source: IFPMA Press Release, August 5, 1997 (http://www.pharmweb.net/pwmirror/pw9/ifpma/ifpma9.html)


Alan F. Holmer

Government Employer

Mr. Alan F. Holmer worked at USTR from 1985 to 1989. From
1985 to 1987, Alan Holmer served as General Counsel to U.S. Trade Representative
Clayton Yeutter. From 1987 to 1989 Mr. Holmer served as the Deputy U.S.
Trade Representative (with rank of Ambassador). Prior to joining USTR,
Mr. Holmer served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Import Administration
at the Commerce Department from 1983 to 1985. As an appointee of President
Reagan, Mr. Holmer served as Deputy Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental
Affairs from 1981 to 1983.

Private Sector Employer

Alan F. Holmer is the President and C.E.O of PhRMA, a
position he has held since July 1996. PhRMA is headquartered Washington,
D.C. and represents America's research-based pharmaceutical and biotechnology
corporations. Click here
to view Mr. Holmer's letter (January 18, 2000) to Secretary Donna Shalala

expressing PhRMA's displeasure with the WHO's draft resolution on HIV/AIDS.
Prior to his tenure at PhRMA, Mr. Holmer worked at the law firm of Sidley
& Austin; he joined Sidley & Austin in 1989.

Source: PhRMA Release: 11/99


Susan K. Finston

Government Employer

Ms. Susan K. Finston worked at the State Department for
thirteen years in the Office of Intellectual Property and Competition serving
in Chicago, Washington DC, Tel Aviv, Manila and London,.

Private Sector Employer

Ms. Finston is currently Assistant Vice President for
Intellectual Property and Middle-East/Afican Affairs at PhRMA.


Daniel L. Spiegel

Government Employer

Mr. Daniel L. Spiegel served as United States Permanent
Representative to the United Nations from 1993 to 1996. In addition, Mr.
Spiegel served as U.S. envoy to the World Health Organization, the World
Intellectual Property Organization, the U.N. Conference on Trade and Development,
the International Labor Organization, the International Telecommunications
Union and the U.N. High Commission for Refugees. From 1978 to 1979, Mr.
Spiegal was a member of the State Department's Policy Planning staff from
1978 to 1979. From 1977 to 1978, Mr. Spiegel served as special assistant
to Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance. Prior to joining the State Department,
Mr. Spiegel served as foreign policy legislative assistant to the late
Senator Hubert H. Humphrey from 1971 to 1976 Earlier in his career, Mr.
Spiegel was legislative assistant to Senator Alan Cranston from 1969 to
1971.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Spiegel is currently a partner at the law firm of
Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P (Washington, D.C. office).
Akin Gump's clients include American Home Products, Pfizer, PhRMA, and
Warner-Lambert. In 1998, Mr. Spiegel was a registered lobbyist for American
Home Products.

Source:
Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P Attorney Profile.


Donald C. Alexander

Government Employer

Mr. Donald C. Alexander served as Commissioner of Internal
Revenue from 1973 to 1977. After his tenure as Commissioner, Mr. Alexander
served on the Commission on Federal Paperwork from 1975 to 1977. From 1983
to 1984, Mr. Alexander served on the Interior Department's Coal Leasing
Commission.
From 1993 to 1996, he was a Commissioner of the Martin Luther King Jr.
Federal Holiday Commission; and from 1987 to 1989 as Chairman of the Internal
Revenue Service Exempt Organizations Advisory Group.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Alexander is currently a partner in the tax section
of Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P. (Washington, D.C. office).
Akin Gump's clients include American Home Products, Pfizer, PhRMA, and
Warner-Lambert. In 1998, Mr. Alexander was a registered lobbyist for Johnson
& Johnson.

Source:
Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P Attorney Profile.


S. Bruce Wilson

Government Employer

Mr. S Bruce Wilson worked almost 17 years at USTR. His
career at USTR included a posting as Assistant U.S. Trade Representative
for Intellectual Property, Services and Investment (a position currently
held by Joseph Papovich), and a posting as Assistant U.S. Trade Representative
for Industry and Services. In this capacity, Mr. Wilson headed U.S. delegations
on intellectual property at the Uruguay Round negotiations. Mr. Wilson
was involved in the establishment of the USTR Mission in Geneva. After
his career in USTR, Mr. Wilson worked for the Ways and Means Committeee
of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1991 to 1998. Mr. Wilson first
served as Staff Director to the Subcommittee on Trade; he then served as
Democatic Trade Counsel.

Private Sector Employer

Bruce Wilson is currently a partner at the law firm of
Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P (Washington, D.C. office).
Akin Gump's clients include American Home Products, Pfizer, PhRMA, and
Warner-Lambert. In 1998, Mr. Wilson was a registered lobbyist for American
Home Products.

Source: Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P Attorney Profile.


Edward J. Allera

Government Employer

Mr. Edward J. Allera was Associate Chief Counsel for Enforcement
at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 1974 to 1978.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Allera is currently a partner at the law firm of Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P (Washington, D.C. office). Akin
Gump's clients include American Home Products, Pfizer, PhRMA, and Warner-Lambert.
In 1998, Mr. Allera was an official lobbyist for Johnson & Johnson.

Source:
Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P Attorney Profile.


Frank J. Donatelli

Government Employer

Mr. Frank J. Donatelli served as head of the Afica Bureau
of USAID in 1983. From March 1984 until May 1985, Mr. Donatelli was Deputy
Assistant to the President for Public Liaison at the White House. During
the fall of 1984, he served on White House Chief of Staff James Baker's
team that negotiated the presidential debates. From March 1987 to January
1989, Mr. Donatelli served as Assistant to President Reagan for Political
and Intergovernmental Affairs. Earlier in his career, Mr. Donatelli worked
for Ronald Reagan's presidential campaign from 1979 to 1980.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Donatelli is currently a partner at the law firm of
Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P (Washington, D.C. office).
Akin Gump's clients include American Home Products, Pfizer, PhRMA, and
Warner-Lambert. In 1998, Mr. Donatelli was a registered lobbyist for PhRMA.

Source: Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P Attorney Profile.


Barney J. Skladany, Jr.

Government Employer

Mr. J. Skladany, Jr. worked at the Criminal Division of
the U.S. Department of Justice from 1970 to 1971.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Skladany is currently a partner at the law firm of
Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P (Washington, D.C. office).
Akin Gump's clients include American Home Products, Pfizer, PhRMA, and
Warner-Lambert. In 1998, Mr. Skladany was a registered lobbyist for Johnson
& Johnson and Warner-Lambert.

Source: Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P Attorney Profile.


Thaddeus J. Burns

Government Employer

 Mr. Thaddeus Burns worked for the USTR Mission in
Geneva as U.S. Intellectual Property Attaché. As Intellectual Property
Attaché, Mr. Burns served as the principal legal advisor to the
USTR-Geneva office and the U.S. Mission to the United Nations. Mr. Burns
represented the United States before WIPO and the WTO in addition to participating
in U.S. delegations to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Prior to joining USTR,
Mr. Burns was an Associate Solicitor at USPTO.

Private Sector Employer

Thaddeus Burns is currently counsel for the law firm of
Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P. Mr. Burns works at the public
law and policy section of Akin Gump in Brussels, Belgium. Akin Gump's clients
include American Home Products, Pfizer, PhRMA, and Warner-Lambert. Mr.
Burns' specialty is international intellectual property law-especially
on issues pertaining to TRIPS and WIPO.Previously, he was an associate
at at the law firm of Jones, Day, Reavis & Washington, D.C.

 Source: Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P Attorney Profile).


 


Elizabeth A. Hyman

Government Employer

Ms. Elizabeth A. Hyman was an Assistant Counsel at USTR
from June 1997 through May 1998. Prior to joining USTR, Ms. Hyman was Associate
Counsel to Vice President Al Gore (November 1996 to May 1997), Chief of
Staff of the Violence Against Women Office at the Department of Justice
(May to November 1996), and a Special Assistant U.S. Attorney in the Eastern
District of Virginia (November 1995 to May 1996). From September 1994 to
November 1995, Ms. Hyman served as Special Assistant to Attorney General
Janet Reno. Prior to her career in Washington, Ms. Hyman was an Assistant
Attorney General and Press Officer for Massachusetts Attorney General Scott
Harshbarger (June 1992 to June 1994).

Private Sector Employer

Ms. Hyman is currently an associate law firm of Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P. (Washington, D.C. office). Akin
Gump's clients include American Home Products, Pfizer, PhRMA, and Warner-Lambert.
In 1998, Ms. Hyman was a registered lobbyist for American Home Products.

 Source: Akin,
Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld, L.L.P Attorney Profile).


Howard H. Baker, Jr.

Government Employer

Former Senator Howard H. Baker, Jr. (R-Tennessee) served in the U.S. Senate between 1967 to
1985. Mr. Baker served as Vice Chairman of the Senate Watergate Committee (1973), Senate Minority Leader (1977-1981),
Senate Majority Leader (1981-1985), and Chief of Staff to the President (February 1987 to July 1988).

Private Sector Employer


Mr. Baker is currently the head of the Public Policy and Regulatory practice of Baker, Donelson, Bearman &
Caldwell. Baker Donelson's clients include PhRMA and Schering Plough.
In 1998, Mr. Baker was a registered lobbyist for Schering-Plough.

 Source:
Baker Donelson.


J. Keith Kennedy

Government Employer

Mr. J. Keith Kennedy was Staff Director of the Committee on
Appropriations for Senator Mark O. Hatfield (R-Oregon).

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Kennedy is currently a Senior Public Policy Advisor at Baker, Donelson, Bearman &
Caldwell (Washington, D.C. office). In 1998, Mr. Kennedy was a registered lobbyist for PhRMA and Schering Plough.

 Source:
Baker Donelson.


George C. Montgomery

Government Employer

Mr. George C. Montgomery served as U.S. Ambassador to Oman from 1985 to 1989. From 1981 to 1985, Mr. Montgomery
was Counsel to Senate Majority Leader Sen. Howard H. Baker, Jr., and Legislative Staffer for Sen. Baker from 1975
to 1980.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Montgomery is currently an attorney at Baker, Donelson, Bearman &
Caldwell (Washington, D.C. office). In 1998, Mr. Montgomery was a registered lobbyist for Schering Plough.

 Source:
Baker Donelson.


John C. Tuck

Government Employer

Mr. John C. Tuck served as Under Secretary for the Department of Energy from
1989 to 1992. Mr. Tuck served as Assistant to the President
from 1986 to 1989. From 1981 to 1986, Mr. Tuck served the the executive and legislative branches in various capacities including positions
as Deputy Assistant to the President for Legislative Affairs, Depute Assistant to the President and
Executive Assistant to the Chief of Staff, and Special Assistant to the President for Legislative Affairs
-U.S. Senate.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Tuck is currently an attorney at Baker, Donelson, Bearman &
Caldwell (Washington, D.C. office). In 1998, Mr. Tuck was a registered lobbyist for Schering Plough.

 Source:
Baker Donelson.


Peter Barton Hutt

Government Employer

Mr. Peter Barton Hutt served as Chief Counsel to the FDA from 1971 to 1975.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Hutt is currently a partner at the law firm of Covington & Burling. In 1998,
Mr. Hutt was a registered lobbyist for PhRMA and the Nonprescription Drug Manufacturers Association .

 Source:
Covington & Burling


Bruce N. Kuhlik

Government Employer

Mr. Bruce N. Kuhlik served as Assistant to the Solicitor General in the U.S. Department of
Justice from 1984 to 1986..

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Kuhlik is currently a partner at the law firm of Covington & Burling. In 1998,
Mr. Kuhlick was a registered lobbyist for Merck, PhRMA and the Nonprescription Drug Manufacturers Association .

 Source:
Covington & Burling


Jeanne S. Archibald

Government Employer

Ms. Jeanne S. Archibald served as the General Counsel of the United States
Department of the Treasury. As General Counsel, Ms. Jeanne Archibald was chief legal officer
of the the Department of Treasury and its ten subordinate bureaus. Prior to her tenure in the U.S. Treasury
Department, Ms. Archibald served at USTR supervising Special 301 proceedings. Prior to her
tenure at USTR, Ms. Archibald served on the staff of the House of Representative's Ways and Means Commitee.

Private Sector Employer

Ms. Archibald is currently a partner at the law firm of Hogan & Hartson L.L.P. In 1998,
Ms. Archibald was a registered lobbyist for PhRMA.

 Source:

Hogan & Hartson, L.L.P.


Stephan E. Lawton

Government Employer

Mr. Stephan E. Lawton served as
Chief Counsel of the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the United States House of
Representatives (1971-1979).

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Lawton is currently a partner at the law firm of Hogan & Hartson L.L.P. In 1998,
Mr. Lawton was a registered lobbyist for Amgen & Genentech.

 Source:

Hogan & Hartson, L.L.P.


Robert P. Brady

Government Employer

Mr. Robert P. Brady served in many positions in the US FDA including
Associate Chief Counsel for Biologics; Associate Chief Counsel for Foods; and Associate Chief Counsel for
Enforcement (1975-1981). From 1981 to 1983, Mr. Brady was Executive Assistant to the Commissioner of the
Food and Drug Administration.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Brady is currently a partner at the law firm of Hogan & Hartson L.L.P. In 1998,
Mr. Lawton was a registered lobbyist for Genentech.

 Source:

Hogan & Hartson, L.L.P.


Michael R. Pollard

Government Employer

Mr. Michael R. Pollard served as attorney advisor for health policy and assistant director of
the Bureau of Consumer Protection at the Federal Trade Commission.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Pollard is currently a partner at the law firm of Michaels & Bonner, P.C. In 1998,
Mr. Pollard was a registered lobbyist for Merck. Prior to joining Michaels & Bonner, Mr. Pollard directed policy
development and planning for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association

 Source:
Michaels & Bonner, P.C.


Thomas D. Parry

Government Employer

Mr. Thomas D. Parry served as Chief of Staff and Chief Counsel to
Senator Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah) for seven years.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Parry is currently Vice President and Secretary-Treasurer of Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.- a Washington, DC based lobbying firm. In 1998, Mr. Parry was a registered lobbyist for Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol-
Myers Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome, Hoechst Marion Roussel, Hoffman- LaRoche, ICN Pharmaceuticals, Interneuron
Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto, Pfizer, PhRMA, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Schering-Plough, and SmithKline
Beecham.

 Source: Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.


Romano Romani

Government Employer

Dr. Romano Romani served as Legislative Director and Staff Director to Senator
Vance Hartke (D-Indiana) and Dennis DeConcini (D-Arizona) for ten years.

Private Sector Employer

Dr. Romani is currently President of Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.- a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm. In 1998, Dr. Romani was a registered lobbyist fro
Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome, Hoechst Marion Roussel, Hoffman- LaRoche, ICN
Pharmaceuticals, Interneuron
Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto,
Pfizer, PhRMA, Pharmacia & Upjohn,
Schering-Plough, and SmithKline Beecham.

 Source: Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.


Dennis DeConcini

Government Employer

Former Senator Dennis DeConcini (D-Arizona) served in the U.S. Senate for ten years.
In this capacity, DeConcini served on the

Senate Appropriations Committee, where he chaired the Subcommittee on
Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government, and served on the Subcommittees on
Defense, Energy and Water Development, and Foreign Operations. Senator DeConcini also
served on the Senate Judiciary Committee and chaired the Subcommittee on Patents,
Copyrights and Trademarks. He also served on the Subcommittees on Antitrust, Monopolies
and Business Rights, the Constitution and the Courts. In addition, the Senator served on the
Select Intelligence Committee and was Chairman of the Committee in 1993 and 1994. Senator
DeConcini also chaired the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (Helsinki
Commission).

Source: Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. DeConcini is currently a partner at Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.- a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm. In 1998, Mr. DeConncini was a registered lobbyist for
Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome, Hoechst Marion Roussel, ICN Pharmaceuticals,
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Schering-Plough, and SmithKline Beecham.


Edward H. Baxter

Government Employer

Mr. Edward H. Baxter served as counsel to the Senate Judiciary Committee, including
a three year tenure as Chief Counsel and Staff Director to the Subcommittee on Patent, Copyrights and
Trademarks. Prior to his career on the Hill, Mr. Baxter was an attorney with the
Department of Interior.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Baxter is currently Vice President for Government Relations at
Parry, Romani, and DeConcini, Inc.- a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm. In 1998, Mr.
Baxter was a registered lobbyist for Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome, Hoechst
Marion Roussel, Hoffman- LaRoche, ICN Pharmaceuticals, Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto,
Pfizer, PhRMA, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Schering-Plough, and SmithKline Beecham.

 Source: Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.


Jack W. Martin

Government Employer

Mr. Jack W. Martin served as Associate Commissioner for Public Affairs at the FDA.
After his tenure as Associate Commissioner for Public Affairs, Mr. Martin served as Special Assistant to the
Commissioner for Policy under Commissioners Frank Young and David Kessler.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Martin is currently Vice President for Federal Relations at
Parry, Romani, and DeConcini, Inc.- a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm. In 1998, Mr. Martin was a registered
lobbyist for Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome, Hoechst Marion Roussel, ICN Pharmaceuticals,
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Schering-Plough, and
SmithKline Beecham.

 Source: Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.


Linda A. Skladany

Government Employer

In the first term of the Reagan Administration, Ms. Linda A. Skladany worked as a Special Assistant to the Secretary of Education and to the United States
Attorney General. After her tenure as Special Assistant, Ms. Skladany joined the United States Department of Transportation as Director of the Executive Secretariat
under then Secretary Elizabeth Dole. In 1985, she joined President Reagan's White House staff where she served as Special Assistant to the
President and Deputy Director of the White House Office of Public Liaison. In 1988, Ms. Sladany she was appointed by Presidents
Reagan and Bush, respectively, as Commissioner and Acting Chairman of the Occupational Safety and Health Review
Commission (OSHA).

Private Sector Employer

Ms. Skladany is currently Vice President for Congressional Relations at
Parry, Romani, and DeConcini, Inc.- a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm. In 1998, Ms. Skladany was a registered
lobbyist for Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol-
Myers Squibb, Glaxo-Wellcome, Hoechst
Marion Roussel, Hoffman- LaRoche,
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics,
Monsanto, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn,
Schering-Plough, and SmithKline Beecham.

 Source: Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.


Shannon S. Davis

Government Employer

Ms. Shannos S. Davis served as a legislative assistant during the 102nd and 103rd Congresses to
Congressman Sam Johnson (R-Texas).

Private Sector Employer

Ms. Davis is currently Director, Congressional Affairs at
Parry, Romani, and DeConcini, Inc.- a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm.
In 1998, Ms. Davis was a registered lobbyist for
Abbott, American Home Products, Bristol-
Myers Squibb, Hoechst Marion Roussel,
Interneuron
Pharmaceuticals, Metagenics, Monsanto,
Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn,
Schering-Plough, and SmithKline Beecham

 Source: Parry, Romani, and DeConcini,
Inc.


Judith A. Butler

Government Employer

Ms. Judith Butler was former chief of staff to three Republican Members of Congress and served
in the Reagan White House.

Private Sector Employer

Ms. Butler is currently a Principal at Podesta.com, a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm.
In 1998, Ms. Butler was a registered lobbyist for Genentech and Genzyme.

Source:
Podesta.com


Elizabeth A. Inadomi

Government Employer

Ms. Elizabeth A. Inadomi was Staff Counsel to the
U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation for
Senator Ernest Hollings and Senator Jay Rockefeller and Counsel to the U.S.
House Subcommittee on Space for the late Rep. George Brown and Rep.
Ralph Hall.

Private Sector Employer

Ms. Inadomi is currently a Principal at Podesta.com, a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm.
In 1998, Ms. Inadomi was a registered lobbyist for Genentech and PhRMA.

Source:
Podesta.com


Claudia James

Government Employer

Ms. Claudia James was Senior Legislative Assistant to
Congressman Peter Peyser and Judiciary Legislative Assistant to Congressman Chris
Dodd.

Private Sector Employer

Ms. James is currently President of Podesta.com, a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm.
In 1998, Ms. James was a registered lobbyist for Genentech and PhRMA.

Source:
Podesta.com


Anthony T. Podesta

Government Employer

Mr. Anthony T. Podesta was counsel to Senator Edward M. Kennedy and Assistant
U.S. Attorney for the District of Columbia

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Podesta is currently Chairman of of Podesta.com, a Washington, D.C. based lobbying firm.
In 1998, Mr. Podesta was a registered lobbyist for Genentech, Genzyme and PhRMA.

Source:
Podesta.com


Lee Skillington

Government Employer

Mr. Lee Skillington was Senior Counsel at the U.S. Patent
and Trademark Office in the Office of Legislative and International
Affairs.

Private Sector Employer

Lee Skillington is currently a partner in the law firm
of Powell, Goldstein, Frazer, & Murphy LLP where he works on intellectual
property issues. Powell Golstein's clients include Genentech and PhRMA.
An example of Mr. Skillington's work in the private sector is evidenced
in a memo (obtained through a FOIA request to USPTO) dated February 2,
2000, where Mr. Skillington and his colleague Jeff Kushan (see below),
advised Carlos A. Silva (PhRMA) on the technical aspects of the Brazilian
Presidential decree (Decree 3,201) permitting compulsory licensing (For
more detail on Brazilian industrial property law see: http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/c/brazil/).
In the memo, Messrs. Skillington and Kushan made recommendations to USTR
on the position the U.S. Government should take on Decree 3,201.


Source:
Powell Goldstein Attorney Directory


Jeffrey Kushan

Government Employer

Mr. Jeffrey Kushan spent over ten years with the USPTO,
including a two-year assignment with USTR in Geneva, Switzerland (1995-1997).
While serving in the USTR-Geneva office, Mr. Kushan participated in WTO
dispute settlement proceedings against India and Pakistan (involving patent
term protection for pharmaceuticals).

Private Sector Employer

Jeffrey Kushan is currently a partner in the law firm
of Powell, Goldstein, Frazer, & Murphy LLP where he works on intellectual
property and TRIPS issues. Mr. Kushan represented Merck at the CPT/HAI/MSF
Compulsory Licensing conference in Geneva (March 1999) at Thaddeus Burns'
insistence (see above). Powell Golstein's clients include Genentech and
PhRMA.

Source: Powell
Goldstein Attorney Directory
.


Barry B. Direnfeld

Government Employer

Mr. Barry B. Direnfeld served as Chief Legislative Counsel to Senator Howard M. Metzenbaum,
and Chief Counsel and Staff Director of the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on
Antitrust, Monopolies, and Business Rights.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Direnfeld is currently a partner in the law firm of Swidler Berlin Sherrif Friedman.
In 1998, Mr. Direnfeld was a registered lobbyist for Transkaryotic Therapies.

Source:
Swidler Berlin
.


Lester S. Hyman

Government Employer

A protege of John F. Kennedy., Mr. Lester S. Hyman served in the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission,
After his tenure at the S.E.C., Mr. Hyman worked at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. After his tenure at HUD, Mr. Hyman
served as Secretary of Commerce. After this appointment, Mr. Hyman served as Chairman of the Democratic
Party of Massachusetts.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Hyman is currently of Counsel at the law firm of Swidler Berlin Sherrif Friedman.
Mr. Hyman is a founding partner of Swidler Berlin. In 1998, Mr. Hyman was a registered lobbyist
for Schering-Plough and SmithKline Beecham.

Source:
Swidler Berlin
.


H.P. Goldfield

Government Employer

Mr. H.P. Goldfield served as Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Trade Development. Prior to his
tenure in the Commerce Department, Mr. Goldfield served as Associate Counsel to the President (1982-83) and
as Assistant Counsel-White House (1981-82).

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Goldfield is currently a partner at the law firm of Swidler Berlin Sherrif Friedman.
In 1998, Mr. Goldfield was a registered lobbyist for SmithKline Beecham and Transkaryotic Therapies.

Source:
Swidler Berlin
.


Richard A. Popkin

Government Employer

Mr. Richard A. Popkin served as senior export control
policy advisor to the Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade, and as Deputy for
Policy to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Trade Administration (1983-1987).

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Popkin is currently a partner at the law firm of Swidler Berlin Sherrif Friedman.
In 1998, Mr. Popkin was a registered lobbyist for SmithKline Beecham.

Source:
Swidler Berlin
.


Gary D. Slaiman

Government Employer

Mr. Gary D. Slaiman served as Chief Counsel and Staff Director for the U.S. Senate
Labor and Human Resources Subcommittee on Labor. Prior to his tenure on the Labor Subcommitee,
Mr. Slaiman was Counsel to the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Antitrust.

Private Sector Employer

Mr. Slaiman is currently a partner at the law firm of Swidler Berlin Sherrif Friedman.
In 1998, Mr. Goldfield was a registered lobbyist for Transkaryotic Therapies

Source:
Swidler Berlin
.


Corrections or suggestions to Thiru Balasubramaniam
thiru@cptech.org.


 

 




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