Immune Stimulant Research. AHCC: Active Hemicellulose Compound (Active Hexose Correlating Compound)
AHCC: One Of The Most Powerful Immune Stimulants Known
Recent scientific research on AHCC, a mycelial extract of several mushrooms grown on rice bran has demonstrated the tremendous benefits of using natural compounds that act as biological response modifiers. As you will see from the discussion below, AHCC is a very powerful, effective, and safe immune stimulant.
AHCC Incorporates Mycelial Extracts from Shiitake, Kawaratake, and Suehirotake Mushrooms
In Japan, hundreds of mushroom species have been studied during the past 20 years. Most of the medicinal mushrooms show a common property of enhancing immune function by stimulating cell-mediated immunity. Simply put, such mushrooms seem to turn on cells in the immune system, which appear to have significant cancer-fighting properties. In fact, three different anticancer drugs extracted from mushrooms have been approved by the Japanese equivalent of FDA--the Health and Welfare Ministry. These three are lentinan, derived from shiitake; PSK, derived from kawaratake; and schizophyllan, derived from suehirotake;.
Shiitake is Japan's largest agricultural export and is now the most popular and most cultivated exotic mushroom in the world. In China, shiitake has a history that dates back to the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.). The mushroom was used not only as a food but was taken as a remedy for upper respiratory diseases, poor blood circulation, liver trouble, exhaustion and weakness, and to boost chi, or life energy. It was also believed to prevent premature aging. Today the shiitake is recognized for its antitumor action and has been extensively researched in regard to its immunologic activity. The initial antitumor research was performed in 1969 by Tetsuro Ikekawa at Purdue University, along with colleagues at the National Cancer Center Research Institute in Tokyo. The researchers found that water extracts of shiitake produced high rates of tumor inhibition in mice (72 percent to 92 percent). Ikekawa later identified a polysaccharide in shiitake called lentinan as having powerful antitumor activity.
Kawaratake, also known as Yun zhi and Coriolus or Trametes versicolor, is the most thoroughly clinically researched mushroom. An extract of Kawaratake, called PSK, sold in Europe and Japan, is the best-selling cancer drug in the world and recently accounted for more than 25% of Japans total national expenditure for anticancer agents. In addition to possessing many different antitumor properties, it is also an immunostimulator; demonstrates anti-viral activity; enhances T-cell proliferation; and has been shown to improve both disease-free and survival rates in cancer patients. In an 8-year clinical test of breast cancer patients, and in another 5-year study, it was shown that the polysaccharide compounds contained within Kawaratake work particularly well as an adjuvant for cancer therapies, exhibiting diverse biological activities.
Suehirotake is also known as the split-fold mushroom. An extract of this mushroom, called SPG, is used with much success as an adjuvant to cancer therapies, in particular, when used in combination with radiation therapy. It is used frequently in cervical cancer cases. Presently, in Japan it is being studied in chronic fatigue syndrome, with 10 out of 11 patients finding their symptoms greatly improved with increased natural killer cell count and no side effects. It has also shown potent anti-HIV effects.
AHCC Combines Cancer Fighting Mushrooms with Rice Bran Extract
AHCC is produced by integrating, through hydrolysis in a liquid culture medium, an extract from the outer shell of rice bran with mycelial extracts from the three different mushrooms described above: Shiitake, Kawaratake, and Suehirotake.
In fact, because of the powerful immune enhancing effects obtained using this synergistic combination of components, AHCC is now the leading nutritional supplement in Japan. It has been reported that AHCC is used on patients in over 700 hospitals nationwide in Japan and it is estimated that over 30,000 patients use the product on a regular basis.
AHCC is a food substance that contains a broad range of polysaccharides. It is believed that a special polysaccharide with a molecular weight of about 5,000 and an alpha 1,4 glucan linkage in this mushroom extract is primarily responsible for the powerful immune enhancing effects on natural killer cells. A heavier polysaccharide in the extract appears to have a powerful stimulating effect on macrophages which, in turn, further stimulates the immune system including a number of cytokines (Interleukin-2, Interleukin-12, Tumor Necrosis Factor [TNF], and Interferon). Furthermore, some research has indicated that components of AHCC may have direct cytotoxic effects on cancer cells and prevent metastases from occurring.
AHCC was originally used as an acronym for Active Hemicellulose Compound, but was changed to stand for Active Hexose Correlating Compound by the Japanese manufacturer (AminoUp) because they felt that it was a more appropriate term. Older research papers in which Active Hemicellulose Compound is referred to are discussing the identical material as Active Hexose Correlating Compound.
Natural Killer Cells
The human immune system is comprised of more than 130 subsets of white blood cells. Natural Killer (NK) cells make up roughly 15% of all human white blood cells. They provide the first line of defense for dealing with any form of invasion to the body. Each NK cell contains several small granules that act as chemical destroyers. Once an NK cell has recognized a cancer cell, for example, it attaches itself to the cell's outer membrane and injects these granules directly into the interior of the cell. The granules then destroy the cancer cell within five minutes. The undamaged NK cell then moves on to other cancer cells and repeats the process. When the immune system is particularly strong, active NK cells will often take on more than one cancer cells or other infected cells at the same time.
NK Cell Activity, Not Number, Determines the Strength of the Immune System
Unlike other white blood cells, inadequate numbers of NK cells are very rarely a problem. Instead, it is the activity of the cells that generally determines whether one is sick or healthy. As long as the NK cells are active, everything remains under control. If NK cells lose their ability to either recognize or destroy the invader, however, the situation can deteriorate rapidly. In AIDS and cancer patients, NK cell activity is probably the primary criteria for estimating the chances of survival. It's commonly accepted that when NK cells cease to function, the end is near.
In addition, research has now confirmed that individuals with low NK cell activity are significantly more susceptible to autoimmune diseases, chronic fatigue syndrome, viral infections and the development of cancerous tumors.
Doctors can test NK cell activity with a test called the NK cell function test. Basically, a blood sample is taken from the patient and placed in a vial containing live tumor cells. After four hours, a count is taken to determine what percentage of the cancer cells have been destroyed by the NK cells. The higher the percentage, the more active the cells. This test is referred to as the 4 hour 51Chromium-release assay. Your doctor can order it from Specialty Labs in Santa Monica, CA at 800-421-7110.
How AHCC Increases NK Cell Activity and Immunity
AHCC's ability to boost NK activity and overall immunity appears to stem from the following:
1) AHCC increases the number of explosive granules in NK cells. The more granules an NK cell carries, the more cancer and virus-infected cells it can destroy,
2) Oral ingestion of AHCC can increase NK activity as much as 300% (or even higher),
3) It increases interferon (IFN) levels. Interferon is another potent compound produced by the body that both inhibits the replication of viruses and other parasites and increases NK cell activity,
4) AHCC increases the formation of Tumor Necrosis Factors (TNFs). TNFs are a group of proteins that help destroy cancer cells,
5) It increases number and the activity of other lymphocytes, especially T-cells (up to 200%) and macrophages.
6) It stimulates cytokine (IL-2, IL-12, TNF, and IFN) production, which stimulates immune function.
Years of research have proven just how powerful AHCC can be at boosting NK cell activity and combating a wide range of diseases. The majority of the work has been with cancer patients.
Unlike most forms of cancer treatment, AHCC is totally non-toxic. After years of use and continued toxicity tests, there has never been any indication of toxicity or side effects whatsoever. Most likely, this is because AHCC's primary function is to enhance the activity of the immune system rather than to attack cancer cells directly. This also helps explain why it seems to work well for all types of cancer. Although large amounts of data haven't been published yet, AHCC's effects on human cancer patients have been very promising.
One study involved 24 cancer patients. First, doctors tested NK cell activity in each patient, and then administered the recommended cancer dosage of 3 grams per day of AHCC. NK cell activity was tested again after 16 hours, one week, one month and two months.
After 16 hours, NK cell activity had increased 1.3 to 1.5 times. After one week, activity had increased eightfold. Activity continued to increase, and at the end of two months, the NK cells were killing 27 times more cancer cells in the four-hour period than they were prior to taking the AHCC. (Int J Immunotherapy 98;XIV(2):89-99).
Research Shows NK Activity Rapidly Increases Within Two Weeks of Initiating AHCC Treatment and Continues To Rise Thereafter
Numerous NK cell activity tests have been done on patients with all types of cancers, and in 80 to 90% of those patients, their NK cells could only kill about 20 to 30% of the cancer cells during the first hour of the test. After just two weeks of taking AHCC, however, the kill percentage increased to 60 to 70% in 99% of the patients.
The results of a study involving five patients with breast cancer were presented at the November 5, 1995, meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. Each patient was treated with the same dosage of 3 grams per day of AHCC. NK cell activity increased within two weeks and continued to do so as the study progressed. At the end of the six- to eight-month study, two of the patients were already in complete remission.
Another study of involved 27 cancer patients ranging in age from 42 to 57. The types of cancers involved included breast, cervical, prostate, leukemia, and multiple myeloma. All patients had low NK cell activity at the beginning of the study. After only two weeks of taking the mushroom extract, the NK cell activity had increased as follows: breast carcinoma 154-332%, cervical carcinoma 100-275%, prostatic cancer 174-385%, leukemia 100-240%, and multiple myeloma 100-537%. Furthermore, NK activity continued to rise throughout the six-month study. (Study reported at the 87th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, April 20, 1996.)
AHCC Helps Cancers That Are Unaffected by Angiogenesis Inhibitors
AHCC fills a gap left by many of the other natural therapies, in particular, the class of therapies known as angiogenesis inhibitors. Angiogenesis inhibitors work by cutting off the blood supply to tumors. Whether they are natural products like shark cartilage or pharmaceutical ones like endostatin and angiostatin, these angiogenesis inhibitors aren't very effective at treating blood cancers such as leukemia, lymphatic cancer or lung cancer.
Because leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells themselves, cutting off the blood supply to these cells is impossible. With lymphatic cancer, it's the lymphatic fluids, not blood vessels, that supply lymph cells with all of their necessary nutrients, so again, cutting off the blood supply is futile. And because the lungs have such a rich and complex supply of blood vessels, there is no effective way to restrict blood flow to that area.
None of these factors present a problem for AHCC. By increasing the activity of NK cells, which naturally reside and circulate in the blood and lymph systems, AHCC can be used effectively for all of these cancers. The NK cells don't have to penetrate deep into massive hard tumors to get to active cancer cells&emdash;they simply identify and eliminate the cancer cells they "encounter" in the blood or lymph.
AHCC Works Against a Variety of Cancer Types And Has Even Worked Against Multiple Myeloma
In another study involving 11 patients, the percentages of patients experiencing complete remission with AHCC were as follows:
1) Prostate cancer, two of the three patients or 66%. (Note: All of the prostate patients experienced a decline in PSA levels. One reached a normal level after one month on AHCC, another's was normal after two months and the third patient's dropped from 87.2 to 7 after four months.)
2) Ovarian cancer, two of the three patients or 66%
3) Breast cancer, one of the three patients or 33%. (The other two had partial remission.)
4) Multiple myeloma, one of the two patients or 50%. (Int J Immunotherapy 95;XI(I):23-28).
These results are very impressive, and the case of the multiple myeloma patient is particularly notable. Multiple myeloma is a rare and fatal cancer. It makes up only about one percent of all cancers, and it is considered practically incurable. Without treatment, a patient almost always lives less than a year. With chemotherapy, some have been known to live two years.
The multiple myeloma patient who experienced complete remission was a 58-year-old male who was diagnosed in October of 1990. He first underwent several months of chemotherapy following his diagnosis. Although everything seemed to have stabilized, his lab work still showed specific blood markers for multiple myeloma eight months after the chemotherapy. He then began taking the AHCC, and in less than six months follow-up, lab work revealed no indication of cancer. Today, almost eight years after his initial diagnosis, he continues to take the mushroom extract and shows no signs of cancer.
In a study of 121 patients with histologically proven liver cancer, all of whom had received surgical removal of liver tumors, it was shown by Matsui, Matsui, and Kamiyana that survival rates and disease-free survival rates in those receiving AHCC were significantly higher than in those not receiving AHCC. In addition, one year after surgery, the serum levels of tumor markers in the group taking AHCC were significantly lower than in the control group. Furthermore, even though many of the patients in this study suffered from hepatitis, AHCC intake inhibited the hepatitis as suggested by the reduction over time in levels of AST, GGT, and bilirubin.
AHCC Lessens the Toxicity and Improves the Effectiveness Of Conventional Cancer Therapies
Above and beyond its own cancer-fighting abilities, AHCC lessens the toxic side effects of conventional cancer treatment. Both chemotherapy and radiation destroy many of the body's white blood cells in the process of trying to destroy the cancer. Taking AHCC concurrently with these treatments can help prevent this effect. Many chemotherapy patients taking AHCC have also reported experiencing less difficulty in swallowing and less burning of the tongue.
Recent research presented on AHCC involves its protective effect on the liver and other areas of the body against anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs. Such protection includes prevention of alopecia (hair loss), normalization of and protection from aberrant liver enzyme levels, and liver detoxification enzymes in regard to chemotherapy. Thus AHCC has a hepatoprotective effect and has also proven useful in protecting the liver against carbon tetrachloride injury.
In addition, AHCC has been used effectively with interleukin-2, the only prescription item that seems to come close to matching its immune-boosting power. (Although there are other natural products that have immune-boosting capabilities, none have been proven in human studies to be more powerful than AHCC.)
Interleukin is a protein that is normally produced in the body. Much like AHCC, it also activates certain white blood cells. To potentiate the effects of this protein, scientists isolated and synthesized it into a chemical called interleukin-2 (IL-2). This extract is then injected into patients to help stimulate their immune systems.
Although IL-2 is gaining popularity as a cancer treatment, it can trigger extremely severe and life-threatening side effects. At the therapeutic doses used for cancer, interleukin-2 causes leaks in the small capillaries. These leaks result in a loss of blood pressure, weight gain, fluid retention, difficulty breathing and heart problems. Continued use can cause kidney failure, respiratory arrest and death. In this way, it represents yet another cancer treatment that often kills the patient before it kills the cancer. Expense is also a factor. A single interleukin-2 treatment can cost as much as $100,000.
Research has revealed that when the mushroom extract is used along with interleukin-2, the dosages of interleukin-2 can be reduced to extremely low levels&emdash;levels which are low enough to avoid the severe side effects. When used together, these two products have a synergistic effect that dramatically exceeds that of either used individually.
Pre-Cancerous Cells (Cervical Dysplasia)
A study conducted by Dr Ghoneum involved seven female patients whose pap smears indicated the presence of abnormal cells. This is not an uncommon finding, and while these cells are not cancerous, they are often referred to as pre-cancerous because of their propensity to develop into cervical cancer.
The severity of cervical dysplasia, as the problem is termed medically, is classified in four stages depending on the degree of abnormality in the cells. Stage I is generally a "wait-and-watch" situation, stages II and III are considered surgical cases, and stage IV is considered cancer.
In the above study, it was found that using the mushroom extract in stage II and stage III patients completely resolved the problem. After six months of the mushroom extract use, with no other form of treatment, all follow-up exams and tests were normal. Some of the women have continued on maintenance doses of the mushroom extract at 1 gram per day. Others have discontinued its use. Today, two to three years after the study, none of the women has experienced recurrence, including women who discontinued the product after only six months.
Over the years, several HIV-infected patients have taken the extract. During the normal progression of this disease, NK cell activity begins to drop along with other immune cells called CD4s and CD8s. CD4 levels routinely decrease at a rate of about 15% a year. In patients taking AHCC however, the CD4 levels can be maintained in almost every case, and oftentimes they will even begin to increase.
Work with AIDS patients has been limited, although all of the patients who have taken the mushroom extract reported a noticeable difference in their well-being, and all have continued to use the product. Most felt the mushroom extract was instrumental in helping them stabilize their disease.
The mushroom extract has been used to treat viral hepatitis (types B & C). Within one week to a month of taking the product, all of the patients had experienced a significant decrease in their symptoms. Laboratory tests for enzyme levels have shown that liver function begins to improve within two weeks. Dr. Erdman and Dr. Pescatore have reported that 3 patients with active hepatitus C have shown between 27-89% improvement after several months of taking AHCC. Furthermore, the above mentioned study of 121 patients with liver cancer, many of whom suffered from hepatitis as well, showed that those taking AHCC has significant reductions in liver markers suggesting liver function improvement.
Additional Therapeutic and Preventive Applications for AHCC
Owing to its tremendous immune enhancing effects, AHCC (ImmPower™) is likely to be of significant benefit to individuals suffering from a wide range of conditions. Impaired immunity is likely to be a result of a wide range of poor lifestyle habits including high stress levels, exposure to high levels of toxins, and poor nutritional status. As such individuals in the following categories could also benefit from AHCC:o Those with chronic fatigue syndrome
o Individuals who constantly work with paint (artists, house painters, etc)
o Chemical and refinery workers and others exposed to heavy doses of toxic chemicals
o Heavy smokers
o Heavy drinkers
o Those with gum disease
o Those with peptic ulcers
o Those with prostate infections
o Those with chronic fatigue syndrome
o Those with diabetes
o Those with heart disease
o Individuals experiencing autoimmune deficiencies (multiple sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis)
o Those with recurrent infections, such as colds, flu, yeast, and parasites
o Families with a strong history of cancer
o Individuals with slow healing wounds
The dosages used in studies are scientifically based on repeated NK cell activity tests. As such, they are very consistent and easy to follow. They fall into types:
1) For cancer, HIV or other life-threatening condition, 3 grams per day for two weeks, then 1 gram per day until the problem is resolved. Some people continue to take the maintenance dosage even after the problem has been resolved, while others stop taking it and resume if the problem returns. In rare cases taking as much as 6 grams daily was necessary.
2) As a form of prevention, 1 gram per day.
In all of the studies, it has been found that taking 3 grams a day resulted in a dramatic increase in NK cell activity within one to two weeks. At the lower dosage of only 1 gram per day, the same activity wasn't reached until about four weeks. Thus the initial heavy doses of 3 grams per day. Even after the dosage is dropped back to 1 gram per day, NK cell activity will continue to increase. It is best to take the AHCC capsules with meals in divided doses. For example, when taking 3 grams a day (which works out to 6 500 mg capsules), 2 capsules can be taken with each meal. When you reduce the dosage down to 1 gram a day (2 capsules), you can take one capsule at breakfast and one at dinner.
AHCC is completely non-toxic and there's no danger whatsoever in taking it long-term. Many people stay on it for life.
1. PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF ACTIVE HEXOSE CORRELATED COMPOUND (AHCC) ON THE RECURRENCE OF POSTOPERATIVE HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA PATIENTS.
H. Kitade, Y. Matsui, S. Takai, A. Imamura, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kamiyama, B. Sun, K. Kosuna
XXXIIIrd Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research 1998
Many attempts have been made to stimulate immune system for cancer treatment. Although several biologic response modifiers have been developed such as BCG, Picibanil, PSK, interferon and interleukin-2, the clinical efficacy of the substances has not been clearly elucidated. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is a newly developed biological response modifier. It is an extract of basidiomycetes which is obtained by hybridization of several types of mushrooms. This study was initiated to evaluate the preventative effect of AHCC on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) patients after surgical treatment.
In this study, 121 patients with histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma were included. All of the patients underwent macroscopically curative resection of a liver tumor. In 38 patients, AHCC (3-6 g/day) was administered orally after surgery (Group A) and 18 patients began to take AHCC after recurrences were verified (Group B). The other 65 patients served as controls (Group C). The longest follow up periods were 39, 65 and 56 months respectively.
There were no significant differences between the three groups in the distribution of age, gender, clinical stage, hepatitis type B and/or C infection, amount of bleeding during surgery and resection volumes of the liver. The survival rate of group A was significantly higher than Group C. The disease-free survival in group A was also significantly higher than that in Groups B and C. One year after surgery, the serum levels of tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA II) in group A were significantly lower that those in groups B and C.
This retrospective study suggests that AHCC intake has a preventive effect in postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of the effect of AHCC.
2. IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTI-CANCER EFFECTS OF ACTIVE HEMICELLULOSE COMPOUND (AHCC)
Ghoneum M., Wimbley M., Salem F., McKlain A., Attallaf N., Gill G.
International Journal of Immunology XI (1) 23-28 (1995)
The effects of therapy with active hemicellulose compound (AHCC) were examined in 11 cancer patients. AHCC is a mycelial extract of basidiomycota originating from hybrid mushrooms. Significant anticancer activity by AHCC was observed with advanced malignancies in patients given 3g of AHCC daily. The percentage of patients with complete remissions were as follows: (I) prostatic, 2/3 (66%), PSA level<0.2; (ii) ovarian, 2/3 (66%) CA125<35; (iii) multiple myeloma, 1/2 (50%), BJP<5; (iv) breast, 1/3 complete remissions and 2 partial. Two mechanisms by which AHCC exerts its effects were investigated. The first was natural killer (NK) immunomodulation. Patients demonstrated a low base level of NK activity (18.8%), which was significantly enhanced at 2 weeks (2.5 fold) and was maintained at a high level. The second effect was anticancer properties. In vitro studies showed that AHCC possesses suppressive effects on tumor cell growth. AHCC (1 mg/ml) cultured with K562 and Raji tumor cells caused 21% and 43% decrease in cell counts, respectively, as compared to control untreated cells. It is concluded that the high augmentory effect of AHCC and the absence of notable side effects make AHCC a promising immunotherapeutic agent for treatment of cancer patients.
3. NK-IMMUNOMODULATION BY ACTIVE HEMICELLULOSE COMPOUND IN 17 CANCER PATIENTS
Mamdooh Ghoneum, Ph.D.
Society of Natural Immunity, Taormina, Italy May 25-28, 1994
The present study was designed to examine the immunomodulatory function of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC). AHCC is an extract of Mycelia basidiomycota which was originated by hybridization of several types of mushrooms. Seventeen cancer patients with different advanced malignancies participated in the study: ovarian carcinoma (2), breast (5), lung (2), rhabdomyosarcoma (1) and prostate (2). Patients received AHCC 3 g/day orally for 2-6 months. NK cell activity was examined by 4-hour Cr release assay against sensitive K562 and resistant Raji tumor cells. Results showed significant enhancement of NK activity against K562 as early as 2 weeks (2 to 3 fold of baseline). Activity was further increased at subsequent time periods up to 6 months post treatment with AHCC. NK activation was also detected against Raji cells, but at later stages, i.e., 1-2 months (2 to 10 fold). AHCC appears to activate NK cells by increasing their binding capacity to tumor cell targets (2 fold), and also increasing NK cell granularity as examined microscopically, in cytospin preparation and biochemically. On the other hand, flow cytometry analysis showed no significant change in the percentage of NK cells (CD3-. CD16+/CD56+). We conclude that AHCC is a potent immunomodulator and may be useful in immunotherapy of cancer.
4. COMBINATION THERAPY OF ACTIVE HEXOSE CORRELATED COMPOUND PLUS UFT SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCES THE METASTATIS OF RAT MAMMARY ADENOCARCINOMA.
K. Matsushita, Y. Kuramitsu, Y. Ohiro, M. Obara, M. Kobayashi, Y. Li, and Mauo Hosokawa
Anti-Cancer Drugs 1998, 9, pp.343-350
Synergistic effects of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) extracted from mushroom on the treatment with UFT against mammary adenocarcinoma, SST-2 cells, in congenitally T cell-depressed spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were observed. AHCC plus UFT has slight but significant effects on the growth of primary tumors. Pulmonary metastases were not inhibited by the treatment with AHCC plus UFT, whereas metastases to axillary lymph nodes (LN) were obviously inhibited. Combination of AHCC plus UFT showed similar synergistic anti-metastatic effects in SHR rats with accelerated pulmonary metastatses following the surgical removal of the primary tumors. In vitro studies demonstrated that AHCC plus UFT enhanced NK cell activity in tumor-bearing rats, whereas UFT alone depressed NK cell activity. AHCC plus UFT also enhanced the NO production and cytotoxicity of peritoneal macrophages. In addition, AHCC restored the suppressed mRNA expression of Interleukin-1-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced by chemotherapy. Taken together, the combination of AHCC plus UFT brought about good therapeutic effects not only on primary tumor growth but also on reducing metastasis and these effects were mediated by host immunity which was restored or activated by AHCC. AHCC may be a good candidate for a biological response modifier.
5. REDUCTION OF SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTICANCER DRUGS BY ACTIVE HEXOSE CORRELATED COMPOUND.
B. Sun, T. Mokoda, T. Kosuna, and F. Okada.
Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Volume 40 March 1999
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), mycelian extracts of cultured basidiomycetes, was examined in animal models to relieve side effects, such as anemia, alopecia and liver injury induced by anticancer drugs.1. Male ddY mice were treated with fluorouracil (5-FU, 50 mg/kg) or cyclophosphamide (CY, 100 mg/kg) or both daily for 14 days by i.p. and AHCC was given in a 5% diet for the same period. Treatment with 5-FU and/or CY resulted in body weight loss, decrease in the numbers of peripheral cells in blood and polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow and were significantly restored by coadministration with AHCC. 2. Male and female SD rats received cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, Lp., 50 mg/kg daily) for 7 days. AHCC was given for the same time period by either p.o. (500 mg/kg), Lp. (500 mg/kg) or local swabbing (5% AHCC solution). The rats treated with Ara-C showed severe alopecia (50-100% hair loss). However, coadministration of Ara-C with AHCC protected from alopecia, especially when AHCC was given p.o. in which only slight alopecia (0-50%) was observed. 3. Male ddY mice were treated with mercaptopurine (60MP, 30 mg/kg) and methotrexate (MTX, 2.5 mg/kg) by p.o. for 4 weeks. AHCC was given at a dose of 1g/kg simultaneously. Treatment with 6-MP and MTX resulted in a decrease of body weight gain, serum albumin and triglyceride levels, liver drug metabolism enzyme activities and the increases of liver weights, sGPT and sGOT levels obviously. The liver injury was significantly improved by the coadministration with AHCC. The results show that AHCC relieved the side effects induced by anticancer drugs in animals.
6. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF ACTIVE HEXOSE CORRELATED COMPOUND (AHCC) ON THE ONSET OF DIABETES INDUCED BY STREPTOZOTOCIN IN THE RAT.
Biomedical Research 20 (3) 145-152, 1999
Effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) on the onset of diabetes were studied in rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ). AHCC was given to male rats at 4% in drinking water. A single I.V. injection of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in an increase in blood glucose levels, a decrease in serum insulin levels, suppression of body weight gain, and an increase in serum GOT and GPT activities and serum levels of lipid peroxides. Treatment of AHCC restored these parameters to normal. Insulin immunoreactive beta cells in Langerhans islets reduced in number after treatment with STZ, while insulin immunoreactivity in the islets was normalized when AHCC was administered to STZ-treated rats. These results show that AHCC treatment is effective on the prevention of diabetes onset induced by STZ.
7. ACTIVE HEXOSE CORRELATED COMPOUND (AHCC) PROTECTS AGAINST CYTOSINE ARABINOSIDE INDUCED ALOPECIA IN THE NEWBORN RAT ANIMAL MODEL
T. Mukoda, B. Sun, and K. Kosuna
Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, 89, p. 2405
8. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF AHCC ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN MICE
B. Sun, K. Wakame, T. Mukoda, A. Toyoshima, T. Kanawaza, K. Kosuna
Natural Medicine, 51, 310-315, 1997
9. ACTIVE HEMICELLULOSE COMPOUND ENHANCES NK CELL ACTIVITY OF AGED MICE IN-VIVO
M. Ghoneum, y. Ninomiya, M. Torabi, G. Gill, A. Wojdani
Abstract of Federation Association Society of Experimental Biology Meeting, Anaheim, CA April 5-9, 1992
10. ENHANCEMENT OF HUMAN NK CELL ACTIVITY IN-VIVO BY ACTIVE HEMICELLULOSE COMPOUND (AHCC)
M. Ghoneum, at al.
Abstract of 7th Annual Conference on Clinical Immunology, Philadelphia, PA, November 13-15, 1992
THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. THESE PRODUCTS ARE NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.
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