Hints For Healthy Travelers

HINTS FOR HEALTHY TRAVELLERS

A MODERATE course of training is a good preparation previous
to travelling for business or pleasure, or for active military ser-
vice ; but it is well in these cases not to let the dietary become
habitually too limited or careful. It is convenient to be able to
eat without repugnance any food capable of supplying nutriment,
even though dirty, ill-cooked, or of strange nature. There is
often a choice only between that and going without.

When actually on a carriage or railway journey it is unwise to
make large meals. They are sure to be swallowed in a hurried
manner, and in a state of heat and excitement very unfavorable
to digestion. The best way is to make no meal at all till the
journey is over, but to carry a supply of cold provisions, bread,
eggs, chickens, game, sandwiches, Cornish pasties, almonds,
oranges, captain's biscuits, water, and sound red wine, or cold
tea, sufficient to stay the appetites of the party, and let a small
quantity be taken every two or three hours.

If this plan be adopted, not only is activity of mind and body
preserved, but that heat and swelling of the legs which so often
concludes a long day's journey is avoided. Attention to the matter
is particularly necessary when the journey continues all night,
and for several days in succession, since varicose veins and per-
manent thickening of the ankles have sometimes resulted from
this exertion being combined with too long fasts and hurried re-
pletion at protracted intervals.

The less stimulant a traveller consumes before he arrives at his
sleeping-place the better. Then the habitual allowance is of ad-
vantage. If a good wine is made in the country he is passing
through, he will probably prefer to fare the same as his hosts; if
not, Bordeaux and Burgundy are the best vintages when procura-
ble, and Marsala in Italy.

In France and Germany very good local beer is to be obtained,

170 SPECIAL DIETETICS OF HEALTH.

but landlords seem to object to its being publicly used as a bev-
erage. We ought to insist on our rights as tourists on this point.
In apple districts, cider is usually placed on the table gratis, and
makes a good substitute for doubtful water.

The water is very apt to disagree with tourists, especially in
volcanic, basaltic, mountainous, and marshy districts. A pocket
filter is a great protection, and boiling the water makes all organic
matters harmless, and gets rid of the greater part of the lime.
But neither of these expedients removes the neutral and alkaline
salts, which will sometimes act as a purgative.

In almost all country places out of England it is impossible to
avoid the greasy dishes which are apparently preferred by all ex-
cept our own countrymen. And a frequent consequence is rancid
indigestion, with nauseous taste in the mouth, and flatulence or
diarrhcea. A few drops of vinegar or lemon-juice, and a little
cayenne pepper in the plate are the readiest correctives.

Another article of cuisine that offends the bowels, if not the
palate, of Britons, is garlic. Not uncommonly in southern climes
an egg with the shell on is the only procurable animal food with-
out garlic in it. Flatulence and looseness are the frequent results.
Bouilli, with its accompaniments of mustard sauce and water-
melon, is the safest resource, and not an unpleasant one, after a
little education.

By special favor potatoes can usually be obtained boiled with
their jackets on (en chemise), but unless asked for are seldom pro-
duced.

Raw ham, which some persons seem to find a luxury, will be
avoided by all sane travellers who have heard of the frequency
with which it is infested with live measle-worm and trichina
spiralis.

It is a great convenience to be able to eat olive oil, which is
much wholesomer than doubtful butter in warm climates ; and
those who care for the future comfort of their sons and daughters
will accustom them to the taste in youth, instead of encouraging
a daintiness in this particular, as I have seen done. Repugnance
to the flavor of goat's milk ought to be got over by those who
ever intend to frequent lands where the pasture will not support
cows. A preference also for boiled milk, or milk that has been
boiled, is a safe fancy to indulge, where you are not acquainted

HINTS FOR TRAVEL. 171

with the yielder of the liquid, especially when typhoid fever is
rife. Irish peasants scarcely ever drink it raw.

On the Continent the household bread is usually unwholesome
and nasty, and captain's biscuits are never to be obtained. It is
prudent to carry a store of them for use whenever the staff of life
is especially abominable. This does not apply to Spain, where
delicious white, firm, fine-grained bread can be procured in places
where it is the only thing eatable by a dainty person.

A small tin of the usual tea employed at home is well worth
the space it occupies.

" Liebig" is procurable in almost every civilized town, and a
small store may be laid in when rough cookery is expected.

A knowledge of simple methods of preparing food is often a
great comfort to a traveller. A friend of mine was once consid-
erably nonplussed in Norway, after he had bargained for some
lamb, by having the animal handed over to him bleating, with a
request that he would return the skin in the evening. The task
was accomplished under difficulties, but the details are unpleasant.
This is an extreme contingency, which need not be provided
against by all vacation barristers acquiring the art of butchering ;
but still it is worth while to learn in your own kitchen how to
prepare an omelet, fry fish, eggs and ham, cut and grill a steak
off a joint, boil and fry potatoes, scrabble eggs, mull wine (if it
happens to be sour), boil coffee, make " Liebig " into good soup,
etc. These accomplishments may be brought into play without
wandering very far from home ; and it is astonishing how popular
they render those sometimes troublesome fellow-travellers, the
ladies of the party.

Travellers, otherwise strong, are apt to get diarrhoea occasion-
ally, partly from the unaccustomed diet, partly from the water,
but very frequently also from the pestiferous state of the provi-
sions for daily retirement in Continental inns. It is worth know-
ing that in many places, especially in France, the landlady has a
small private establishment of her own, quite unobjectionable, of
which she will lend the key to favored guests, especially Britons.
In country places gentlemen will do well to worship Cloacina sub
Jove. For this sort of mild dysentery will keep recurring again
and again, easier induced by having occurred before ; and not un-

172 SPECIAL DIETETICS OF HEALTH.

frequently it will leave traces of imperfect digestion in the bowels
for weeks after returning home.

As a provision against accidental diarrhrea it is wise to be pre-
pared with some chalk and opium powders (Pulvis Oretce aromati-
cus cum Opio, Pharm. Brit.} made up in 20-grain packets, in
thin gutta percha or oil silk, to keep them dry. In northerly lat-
itudes half a packet, containing J grain of opium, can be taken
after each relaxation. But in warm countries a more efficient, at
least a more permanently efficient remedy is to be found in lemon-
juice. The patient should lie down flat, and keep sipping a mix-
ture of half and half lemon-juice and water, or simply sucking
lemons, till the symptoms have ceased, which will soon be the
case. The nausea and narcotism induced by opium are thus
avoided, and there is no danger in taking an excess of the fruit.
It is a good thing to get accustomed to the acidity of the flavor,
for there is nothing so wholesome and convenient as a drink.

Travellers in countries where the atmosphere is very dry, as in
the vicinity of the Mediterranean, sometimes lose their appetite
for breakfast from want of sleep. This inconvenience may be
overcome by soaking a sheet or some towels in water and spread-
ing them out on the floor of the bed-room, so as to diffuse moist-
ure through the air breathed during sleep.

Long days' rides, especially in the heat, are liable to bring on
an inert or semi-paralyzed condition of the stomach, so that if a full
meal be taken immediately it remains undigested, and is frequently
thrown up again. This may be prevented by a rest and a hot
bath between getting out of the saddle and sitting down to table.
If these cannot be had, it will be best to eat something very light,
such as soup, eggs, bread, and in small quantities, and to make up
the deficiency next day at breakfast and luncheon, which should
be always the solidest meals in journeys of this sort.

Boils are sometimes very troublesome to equestrians. A small
piece of nitrate of silver ought to be carried in the baggage, and
on the first tenderness, redness, and hardness of the skin, the part
should be damped and the caustic crossed twice over it. The ob-
ject is not to make the cuticle rise in a blister, but to contract and
render insensitive the cutis. This will usually cause the boil to
die away.

Pedestrians will do well to make a good breakfast before start-

HINTS FOR TRAVEL. 173

ing, however early the hour may be. If tea or coffee are not
relished on account of the time being so unusual, beef tea or soup
will be found an excellent substitute. If prepared over night,
they are easily warmed up in the morning.

Advantage should be seized of every day of rest to feed well,
and fatten up as much as possible. This does not put the body
out of training, but in fact keeps it in a condition fit for continu-
ous exertion.

Beer, wine, and spirits should be avoided altogether during the
day's work, but water, cold tea, or lemonade may be drunk ac-
cording to thirst. An occasional pipe of tobacco seems to palliate
better than anything else that dryness of mouth which constitutes
false thirst. This false thirst naturally arises during exercise in a
rarefied air, but in mountainous places it is often aggravated very
much by eating snow or ice. Spring-water, though scarcely over
the freezing-point, does not seem to have the same unpleasant
effect.

Sea-voyages have a powerful curative effect on some invalids,
but they do not generally bring healthy persons into very good
condition. If it is calm, landsmen overeat themselves, take too
little exercise, sleep badly, and get their bowels constipated. If it
is rough, they suffer from sea-sickness and the increased badness
of ventilation below. The remedies for these things, so far as
they are remediable, are obvious.

Short sea-voyages do nobody any good, and a few people a
great deal of harm. They are an inevitable evil for all islanders
who wish to enlarge their ideas. Sea-sickness may, however, be
considerably palliated by rational preparation for it. In the first
place care should be taken to finish all preliminary arrangements
as long before starting as you can, so that a day or two may be
given to rest and a temperance somewhat more than usual. If
the eyes or skin are dingy and yellow, take a purge of aloes or
taraxacum. Go on board in good time, so as to secure a comforta-
ble post. If it is evidently going to be rough, go below and lie
down immediately. If you remain on deck, be very warmly
clothed, and especially let no chill affect the abdomen or back.
If the stomach feels empty, and still more, if any dry retching
occurs, take bottled porter and biscuit spread with a little butter
and cayenne pepper which last article, by the way, amply repays

174 SPECIAL DIETETICS OF HEALTH.

the space it will occupy in a traveller's pocket throughout a jour-
ney, so useful is it on all occasions. Nutritious food should be
taken when practicable, but loading the stomach with trash brings
on sickness; though truly enough it facilitates the process of
vomiting, and prevents the regurgitation of bile, which is always
peculiarly painful after dry retching.

If the voyage is by night, and sufficiently long to make a
night's rest of, say seven or eight hours at least, it is worth while
to swallow a full dose of chloral on embarking, and to sleep
through one's troubles. But if you have to wake up in two
or three hours to disembark, you feel ill all the next day, if not
longer.

Ice-bags, and all other charms for sea-sickness, have turned out
mere trade puffs.

CLIMATE. 175

CHAPTER VIII.

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE.

THE race of man exhibits great powers of resistance to external
influences, and is able to occupy a length and breadth of the earth's
surface such as is attained by no other animal or even plant.
This arises not from any innate bodily strength, but from his
being able to accommodate himself by the aid of reason to circum-
stances. Thus experience has led to the adoption of very differ-
ent dietaries in different regions. An Esquimaux would find
much difficulty in growing rice near his home, so he wisely dines
on such meat as he can get or on whale-bubbler. A Bengalee
could not obtain a supply of flesh food without immense labor,
and finds rice grown easily, so he lives almost entirely on the
latter. The curiosities of food afford examples of the boldness of
man in not being deterred by their repulsiveness to his senses from
converting assimilable substances to his use, enough to make the
simple reader shudder ; but I do not know that the philosopher
gains much knowledge from such recitals. Man learns to swal-
low, bon gre, mal gre, whatever contains aliment, and the art of
living lies in the learning so to eat it as that it shall serve his
turn. Climate influences diet mainly by the supply it affords.

In most warm countries there is an abundance of starchy and
sugary food, and but little animal. How shall this existent pro-
vision be made most available for the prolongation of life ? Let
us refer back to the principle on which were reckoned in the first
part of this volume the requirements of the body for its daily
work (p. 21), and draw the obvious inferences therefrom. The
diet is, in hot countries, perforce one that entails the loading the
digestive organs with a great excess of carbon in order that enough
nitrogen may be obtained. In the first place, therefore, the car-
bon should not be in too rapidly digestible a form. Starch and
vegetable fibre, as supplied by grain and green food, are better
than oleaginous matter in warm climates ; for while the former

176 SPECIAL DIETETICS OF HEALTH.

only overloads the intestinal canal, the latter overloads the blood
and tissues with useless and deleterious products. Then, it is
essential that no frequent calls should be made for unusual exer-
tion : the muscles and nerves must not be worn out, for the mate-
rials of their repair are few. Moreover, the supply of food must
be continuously copious and accessible ; for starvation is badly
borne by him who is hanging on to life " by the skin of his teeth."
No sudden changes must be made in the dietary, even in the form
of the vegetable food ; for a new article is with difficulty digested
by an unhabituated stomach, though it should be perhaps more
ordinarily digestible than the usual nutriment. This is not the
case with meat-eaters, who can bear change much easier from one
kind of flesh-food to another.

The English reader's interest in his fellow-subjects will natu-
rally suggest to him the important bearing which these consider-
ations have on the duties of both government and individuals
towards the inhabitants of our Indian possessions. Our first busi-
ness is to keep them alive at whatever cost to ourselves; and the
next to render them as little dependent as possible on the accidents
of drought, flood, and other unfavorable contingencies of season,
partly by storing grain, and (what is infinitely more important)
water, the means of producing grain, from one season to another.
Tanks, artificial lakes, irrigation works, and roads, stamped with
the latest improvements of modern science, will preserve the
memory of our rule when the bronze statues of our leaders are as
unintelligible as the Memnon. Who cares for, or knows of, the
martial exploits of the Pharaohs ? Yet their successful efforts for
regulating the food supply of Egypt preserve fresh, forever, our
grateful remembrance of them. The heaven of nations is in the
hearts of men.

Again, we must not expect to get work ouc of vegetable-feeders
in return for our bounty. If required to exert themselves in any
unusual way, when food is deficient, they simply die. The reason
is evident : they have been living on their own tissues, and the
small quantity of albuminous matter in grain is a long time in
building them, up again ; so that for weeks or even months their
muscles are in a state of atrophy. A broken watch must be re-
paired before you call upon it to go.

CLIMATE. 177

Also, any variations made in the nature of their food must be
very gradual and well considered.

Still, there is no impossibility in the gradual introduction of
changes, at least in the preparation of food. Some method might
be popularized of augmenting the proportion of nitrogenous matter
in the dietary by mechanically reducing the carbon, such as pro-
duces in Italy the highly nutritious macaroni. Starch is readily
washed out of the grain, and is itself a valuable article of com-
merce for industrial purposes, as well as being capable of conver-
sion into more digestible substances for use as food. Also the
separation of starch and the storing it in a form less liable to de-
composition and the ravages of insects than ordinary grain, would
be a great source of safety to a graminivorous people.

I had a striking illustration of the different values of vegetable
and animal food a few years ago in the case of a robust Hindoo
gentleman, who habitually lived on rice and vetches, which he
imported himself from Bombay, and had cooked by a servant of
the same faith as himself, so that his meal should not be defiled
by the touch or even the look of a Christian. The said servant
went holiday-making to Greenwich, got drunk and into the
lockup, so that his master had an involuntary fast of nearly two
days. And- then he was so weakened that the labor of opening
his letters brought on hiccough, vomiting, and extreme depression,
so that he could not take food when, at last, he obtained it. The
mention of beef tea was an abomination to him; he said,, his an-
cestors had not put in their mouths animal food for 6000 years,
and he was not going to begin. But when the abominable sub-
stance was craftily introduced to the other extremity of the diges-
tive canal, it seemed to flow directly into his veins, which filled
with blood, and he was well. The absorbents had clearly not
lost their natural habits by disuse for so many generations.

Where the circumstances of a country are such that plants suit-
able for food cannot be grown, while there is a sufficient supply
of animals to nourish the population, the inhabitants are hardy,
enduring extreme cold and heat, and capable of violent physical
exertion. But steady daily labor wears them out, and is abhor-
rent to their feelings. We may instance, as under several varie-
ties of temperature, the Esquimaux, "the Indians and half-breds of
the Pampas, the Tartar hordes, and the Arabs of the Nubian

12

178 SPECIAL DIETETICS OF HEALTH.

Desert. These nations of meat-eating hunters and herdsmen are
mightily strong and prolific, and have fulfilled to them the prom-
ise made to the sons of the wild Sheik Jonadab, of never lacking
" a man to stand before the Lord forever." But that is only so
long as they follow their ancestral traditions, and retain habits
suited to none but sparsely inhabited lands. When the inevitable
tide of civilization overtakes them, and they become cultivators
and craftsmen, they fall under the natural laws of population and
take their chances with the rest of mankind. Often, indeed, the
day goes against them in the fight of innovation, especially if it
has been sudden ; they fade away childless under our very eyes,
like that vast American tribe of which, it is said, the only rem-
nants are a chief, a tomahawk, and six gallons of whisky. The
only possible remedy for this terrible state of things is beef. Our
progress is progressively poisoning off our weaker brethren ; we
are no more to blame for it than we are for crushing the harmless
beetles and daisies that lie in our path. Still, we are bound in
mercy to tide them over the struggle, to let them assimilate gradu-
ally with the more civilized world. Hunters should have facili-
ties afforded them of becoming herdsmen, and, in course of gener-
ations, from herdsmen, farmers, and gardeners; for the immediate
transition from a purely animal to a principally vegetable diet,
though borne by the individual, is fatal to the race.

The action of climate on diet seems to be affected by the food
produce which it enables the soil to bring forth. The fixed in-
habitants grow accustomed to it, and, according to the law of the
survival of the fittest for the peculiar circumstances, are prosper-
ous and prolific as a race, and healthy as individuals, while fol-
lowing their ancestral habits. But that historic fact does not at
all show either that the diet is the best abstractedly, still less that
it is the best suited to foreigners. It seems absurd to argue that
the inhabitant of the Polar Circle lives on fat animal food because
it is so cold, and, at the same time, that the burning plains of the
Pampas are a reason for thriving on flesh and water only; or that
the climatic circumstances of North Norway and Southern Spain
are the cause of the inhabitants living almost entirely on bread.
The best diet in the abstract is a mixed diet, and mixed in the
proportions selected by the experience of the most civilized nations.
And it is also the best for the individual who is accustomed to it

CLIMATE. 179

to adhere to, under whatever sky he may be wandering. The
higher the health he enjoys, the more nearly he approaches to the
true aim of being in training, the better he is able to resist the
adverse circumstances he may be subjected to. Experience does
not justify an agreement with those dieticians who desire us to
alter our commissariat in accordance with the example of those
among whom we dwell for a season, or in obedience to the ther-
mometer, and M. Cyr is indubitably wrong when he blames Britons
for "retaining their customary substantial regimen under other
skies and in hot countries." 1

In India and in Africa our soldiers suffer from fevers, ague,
dysentery, and are liable to contract cholera and other epidemics.
But the camps of our foes are usually still more severely ravaged
at the same time; and it is observed that those suffer least who
continue the habits of sensible men at home. Inflammations and
degenerations of the liver also afflict our countrymen in the East,
and a certain proportion of this evil is due to intemperance, as it is
in England ; but the great majority of the cases are traceable to the
consequences of malarious fever. It does not appear that those
who make a rational use of alcohol, as they would have done at
home, suffer more than the abstinent. The principal thing to be
remembered is that as the outgoings of water by skin and lungs
are very great, the ingoings must be great also, and therefore that
the fermented drinks must be taken in a dilute form, otherwise,
thirst will cause an excess of stimulant to be consumed. This ap-
plies equally to the warm summers in dry temperate climates, such
as Italy, as well as to tropical regions.

The object of attention to diet in unaccustomed climates should
be to accommodate to the demands of the system the food which
can be obtained, and to which we are obliged by necessity to re-
strict ourselves. If starchy food is to be got, solely or mainly, a
great deal of it must be eaten, and the digestion of this unusual
mass is facilitated by being taken alone -and not mixed with meat;
and the meat, when it comes to hand, should form a separate meal.
Thus the full force of salivary digestion is brought into play. In-
voluntary vegetarians are apt to starve themselves from want of
inclination towards the flavorless viands. They should be warned

1 Traite dc 1'Alimentation, p. 221.

180 SPECIAL DIETETICS OF HEALTH.

of the danger of this. If nothing but animal food is within reach,
again, still more is it imperative to eat largely, if the body is to
be preserved in its integrity, as has been argued in a previous
chapter (p. 21). Sir John Koss found the Esquimaux devour-
ing about twenty pounds a day of meat and blubber. And his
experience among his own men leads him to urge the desirability
of acquiring, previously to a contemplated winter residence in
Polar regions, a taste for Greenland food, the large consumption
of it being the true secret of life in those frozen countries. " The
quantity of food," he says, " should be increased, be that as incon-
venient as it may." 1 Again, Sir Francis Head, in his famous
journey across the burning plains of the Pampas, where beef and
water were the only victuals to be had, got himself into magnifi-
cent condition, not by dint of the limited slices of civilized society,
but by eating flesh, morning, noon, and night, liberally. 2 Under
both circumstances the addition of a small quantity of vegetable
food would have rendered needless the excess of nitrogenous ali-
ment.

When the Englishman is in foreign countries it is more neces-
sary than at home to pay that attention to diet which will insure
the highest attainable health and condition. For to his constitu-
tion, at any rate, if not absolutely, every place is less healthy than
England. Plagues of all sorts, terrestrial and celestial, beset his
path, and he must walk warily if he would return sound. Per-
haps, at home he may have lived carelessly, and been lucky
enough not to suffer, but he cannot hope for the same good fortune
under less favorable auspices. This caution is not required by
the sensible readers of these pages, but it may be useful in its ap-
plication to their less wise dependents and clients, who, in coun-
tries where one is always thirsty and there is abundance of drink,
are as apt to yield to temptation as in England. The punishment
of stupidity is surer and heavier than they are led to anticipate by
former experience.

Exercise and clothing should be accommodated to the food.
We should not in these particulars copy the manners of natives
any more than we do their dietary. Active muscularity and field

1 Boss, Second Voyage for the Discovery of the Northwest Passage, p. 413.

2 Head's Journey across the Pampas (1828),

CLIMATE. 181

sports render the body less likely to suffer from the solar and ma-
larious influences to which they, to a certain extent, expose those
who pursue them; and the simple precautions of keeping the skin
dry and warm after exertion, and of taking small preventive doses
of quinine, will make these healthy pleasures nearly as safe in the
tropics as in Europe, times and places of extraordinary risk being
avoided.

In the selection of fit persons to undergo, with safety to them-
selves and others, exposure to extremes of either cold or heat, the
surest guide is their power of gaining weight and condition under
a course of training. These are not always persons of the biggest
muscles and bones; indeed, a moderately sized frame is the tough-
est as a rule. Sheer pluck will sometimes enable a most unfit
subject to pass undetected through tests of endurance; and doubt-
less such a temper is valuable in a colleague; but it will not sup-
ply the place of hardihood. The surest proof of hardihood is im-
provement under training.

As the women desiring to undergo bodily hardship are more
exceptional than men, so is it all the more necessary to test them
thoroughly. Their desire is almost always the self-sacrifice of
love ; but they do not wish to burden others with bitter memories
or to injure the object they profess to aid, as happens if they break
down. The world has less direct claim on their assistance, and
therefore they should not offer it without being sure that it is
really worth having. This specially applies to the wives of mis-
sionaries, travellers in new countries, emissaries to barbarous na-
tions, and the like. They are of incalculable service while sound,
but a serious impediment when sick. Their enduring courage
may be taken for granted, as it is proved by their volunteering.
But unless they grow in strength and weight, or at least preserve
their weight, under a course of training, their place is home.

The standard chapter in dietetic treatises on the due influence
of the seasons on the selection of food in temperate climates does
not exhibit any practical contributions of science. We hardly re-
quire to be told to indulge more in weak potations in July than
in December, or to eat a better dinner when our appetite is braced
up by a frost. Some of their refinements remind one of the dan-
dies in Imperial Rome who wore heavy finger-rings in winter and
light in summer, and are beneath the notice of a healthy man.

182 SPECIAL DIETETICS OF HEALTH.

Some are positively repugnant to experience, as, for example, the
recommendation to keep out the cold by eating sugary and starchy
dishes, on the ground that they are producers of heat by combus-
tion. The loss of heat by evaporation makes it quite as necessary
to sustain the temperature of the body in summer as in winter,
and the same amount of force has to be elicited; so that, as a mat-
ter of fact, meals of bread and pastry and sweet fruits are more
seasonable in warm weather than in cold, for they cause less fever-
ishuess and excitement than meat does. The succession in their
due season of .marketable articles affords a sufficient guide to their
selection. As an almost universal rule they are wholesomest
when cheapest, if the simple directions given already for securing
their soundness and freedom from adulteration be adhered to.

Sir James Clark 1 remarks that " change of air is not more val-
uable as a remedy in the cure of disease and its consequences, than
as a preventive of disease, more especially in childhood and youth."
It is upon the appetite that its effect is first marked, and no doubt
this is most prominent when the change is from an impure to a
purer air. Yet I have known the mere change alone to have a
beneficial influence, as, for instance, a removal for a time from the
seaside or the fresh breezes of the Worcestershire hills to London.
Observation does not incline me to have faith in the doctrine of
acclimatization. It seems to me that a long residence in a climate,
instead of rendering it more salubrious to the resider, makes it
less suitable in close proportion to its length. I cannot at all join
Claudian in his praise of the old man of Verona, who attained the
age of ninety without ever going out of the suburbs. 2 He used
his natural toughness to set a very bad example to his neighbors ;
and if many followed it, I am sure some must have suffered in
mind and body.

In choosing a place of education for children, it is desirable that
the climate should be decidedly different from that enjoyed at
home during the holidays. Denizens of the stagnating, oft-
breathed atmosphere of a metropolis will do well to select a coun-
try school ; dwellers on the high ground of central England will
find what suits them best on the coast ; while both the seasiders

1 Cyclopaedia of Practical Medicine, i,49.

2 De sene Veronensi epigramma.

CLIMATE. 183

and country folks may venture, without risk of deterioration, to
.-(cure for their growing families the many advantages of instruc-
tion in a town.

Clergymen whose health is below par and even verging on dis-
. will often gain wonderfully by a mutual exchange of duty,
provided the climates of their several spheres are different. Satirists
say that parsons' livings always disagree with them ; and there is
a strong spice of fact in the statement ; it is not fancy*, but a real
stagnation, from monotony in their aerial and other surroundings.
The remedy is easy and cheap, but the physiological.conditions of
it should be clearly understood. It would be a profitable subject
for bishops and archdeacons to dilate upon in their charges, as it
is quite as important to the public that clergymen should be kept
in repair as that churches should be so attended to.

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