THE KIDNEY MERIDIAN

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Introduction

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Unlike the Lung meridian, the other meridians do not start at their corresponding organ. This is because the internal organs do not create their meridians; nor do the meridians create their corresponding internal organs. As a yin and yang pair, one simply cannot exist without the other. While the primary concept of meridian is the circulation of universal qi in and around the human body, they support, influence and react to each other.

Since the physical body is capable of manifesting only in a Five Elemental (Wu xiang) manner, the six meridians must share five fingers. Like the way an object casts a shadow on a flat surface, the six universal energies are projected or reduced into a five "dimensional" space. Shaoyin and Shaoyang qi, as imperial fire and minister fire, show a placement of sharing borders throughout the body. Combining qi and material substance becomes remarkably complex through a system of meridians, divergent meridians, collateral channels, as well as through the Five Elemental points, Mu, Shu, Luo, etc.

While the three yin and three yang layers of meridians form a continuous circle through the arms and legs in the order of yin-yang-yang-yin-yin-yang -yang-yin-yin-yang-yang-yin, they follow the six qi rules of the universe. The following two diagrams illustrate the orderly distribution of the twelve meridians throughout the body.

26n1.jpgSome General Considerations

Because of the difficulty to penetrate through the dense armor formed by the spine and ribs on the back, all the meridians other than Taiyang of leg tend to flow over the front of the body. Similarly, the back of the head is enclosed while the face and temporal regions are open through the sensory organs. Therefore, all meridians also tend to connect with the face rather than the back of the head.

In the Fig. C, one side of body is illustrated showing twelve meridians distributed at the left arm and left leg. Notice that the horizontal center line indicates the body trunk and the organs, while the vertical center line indicates spine. The vertical line at the center of the circles indicates the bones of the arm and leg. In this diagram, the energy circulation follows the numbering system. Note that meridians which initiate from the horizontal line start their courses from the corresponding organs (1,5,9,and 3, 11, 7). The others initiate from the tips of the limbs and eventually connect with their corresponding organs.

27n1.jpgThis line implies the body's trunk & Internal organs
The twelve meridians are numbered on the diagram as follows:

1. Taiyin of Arm
2. Yangming of Arm
3. Yangming of Leg
4. Taiyin of Leg
5. Shaoyin of Arm
6. Taiyang of Arm
7. Taiyang of Leg
8. Shaoyin of Leg
9. Jueyin of Arm
10. Shaoyang of Arm
11. Shaoyang of Leg
12. Jueyin of Leg

Heaven is the source of the yang meridians; earth is the source of the yin meridians. These energies flow between heaven and earth, merely passing through the human body.

The Ren mai and Du mai meridians are created as a result of symmetrical pairs of three yin on the front and three yang on the back. As much as Ren mai/Du mai circuit is the most vital meridian circulation of the human body, it is the result of the interaction between the six qi circulation thru the body and the body's five elemental response. Since Ren mai and Du mai are created by the universal six q i in the human body, these two are the only meridians that truly belong to an individual. This is the reason why Ren mai and Du mai are the most important channels of circulation for human existence (health, life, death).

The Kidney meridian is the meridian that most closely follows and contributes to Ren mai while also creating important channels like Chong mai. Together these three meridians contribute the most important qi flow in creating a new life (reproduction).

The lung deals with the "most yang" qi, and the kidney the "most yin" qi. Because they deal with such opposite qualities of qi in a physical unit, they become a pair. Naturally, there are connections between Kidney channel and Lung channel internally.

The Lung channel reaches down to the Tantien and the kidneys, while Kidney channel extends up to the lungs and bronchial tubes. While their two essences (qi and jing respectively) mix between these two organs, the many variables of the internal environment arouse tremendous variety in the way that qi and jing manifest in syndromes. In the microcosm of human body, the lung draws universal yang qi into the the microcosmic unit, and the kidney, through the action of the spleen and stomach, supplies yin energy or jing qi. This is how the microcosm simulates the macrocosmic flow as shown in the Fig. C and Fig. D. Reducing this scheme to the smaller scale of an individual, we can consider the flow of the external channels at the surface of the body to be the macrocosm of the universe, and the internal flow of the channels as the microcosm of human body. A more in-depth synopsis of universal stems and earthly branches will be discussed in my commentaries of the Yoonchi section of the Neiching.

27n2.jpgUniversal Qi Moving Downward
The Kidney Meridian

Here, we will not discuss the kidney organ per se nor emphasize the importance of the kidneys but, instead, summarize the course of this meridian. The Kidney meridian initiates from the last point of the Bladder meridian located on the fifth toe. From UB67 (Zhiyin), yang becomes yin. The Taiyang qi of the water element transforms into Shaoyin of water element by entering into the deepest center of the foot at Kd1 (Yongquan). Naturally, Kd1 (Yongquan) point is in the foot, not simply on the bottom skin of foot. The course of the meridian follows the interior aspect of the foot, moving upward around the interior malleolus and then backward and down. When it reaches the bottom of the interior malleolus, the qi enters deeper into the joint and forms Kd6 (Zhaohai), the Kidney meridian becomes more involved with the internal organs and other meridians.

Kidney meridian's Luo point is Kd4 (Dazhong) and it directly communicate with the Bladder meridian through UB58 (Feiyang), the Luo point of the Bladder meridian. This pair of points actively exchanges qi through yin/yang transformation. As Kd2 (Rangu) receives and springs out the Fire element of Shaoyin, Yangming qi influence from St12 (Quepen) through Yin qiao Mai causes the flow between Kd2 (Rangu) and Taixi to be much more vigorous. This makes Kd3 (Taixi) an effective point for controlling the flow (stream) of kidney qi. Kd3 (Taixi) forms a pair with U60 (Kunlun). Taixi is earth of yin and Kunlun is fire of yang. These two points control each other and contribute to the balancing of two water (Bladder and Kidney) meridians.

The pairing of these points not only contributes to balancing of these two meridians, but also helps focus needling effect to a very small area which is often necessary for treating localized disorders like broken bones, cysts, obstructions of urethra, etc. Kd6 (Zhaohai) and UB62 (Shenmai) also form a pair.

The Kidney meridian has a very complex relation with many other meridians. Kd1 (Yongquan) is in polarity with the Heart meridian Ht8 (Shaofu). Kd2 (Rangu), Taixi, Zhaohai and Jiaoxin connects to the Stomach meridian through Quepen (St12). Between Sanjiaoxin and Yin Gu, Sanyinjiao (Sp6) connects the Kidney meridian to two other yin meridians (Jueyin, Taiyin) while it branches into Yin qiao mai following closely the Kidney meridian up to Yin Gu. At Yin Gu, the Kidney meridian connects to Yin ling quan (Sp9, water of Taiyin) and the water elemental quality becomes more clear and the combination of spleen and kidney qi allows Yin Gu to influence the reproductive qi the more powerfully. Zhubin (K9) connects to the Spleen meridian at Fushe through Yin wei mai, and extends to the liver meridian at qi men, and further extends to Ren mai at Tiantu. After the Yin Gu, kidney meridian moves upward toward Changqiang connecting directly to Du mai and Ren mai. From Changqiang, one branch of the Kidney meridian follows the Du mai up to Mingmen and enters into the both adrenal glands (Huangmen, UB51) and than into the kidneys. From the kidneys, two lines of qi enter the Tantien.

From Changqiang, the other branch rises forward of Ren mai, forming Chong mai, and at Qugu (Ren2) it divides into two lines (.5 cun lateral to Ren mai) to reach Huangshu (K16) at the level of umblicus. During this course, at Huiyin, additional qi (downward yang qi) from the Tantien enters the Ren mai forming Chong mai, Ren mai and Kidney meridians together. Ren mai connects with the Kidney meridian, Spleen meridian and Liver meridian connecting Dahe (K12), Fushe (Sp13), Jimai (Liv12) and Zhongji (Ren3), and through Zhongji, the Kidney meridian contacts the bladder. The Kidney meridian branch through the Du mai and kidneys which enters the bladder also joins the Kidney meridian at Guanyuan (Ren4), and connects back to the Kidney meridian at Qi xue (K13) to continue upward flow of the Shaoyin qi.

From Huangshu (K16), the Kidney meridian mixes again into Ren mai and travels down internally to enter urinary bladder. From the kidneys, another branch of kidney qi moves directly to liver, diaphragm and lung. A branch from the lung enters heart and connects to pericardium. The other branch from the lung follows the bronchial tube laterally and reaches the root of the tongue. Between Yin Gu and Henggu, the Kidney meridian communicates with Liver and Spleen meridian through connections between Chong mai, Yin wei mai, Yin qiao mai, the Liver meridian and the Spleen meridian. At Chongmen (Sp12), Spleen meridian connects with the Liver meridian and together with the Kidney meridian, three yin meridians meet in the Ren mai through Qugu (Ren2).
Details of the Kidney Meridian

Kd1 (Yongquan), a wood element Shaoyin (yin fire) of the water point of leg (yin, lower burner), has a direct contact with Ht8 (Shaofu) which has fire element of Shaoyin (yin fire) of the hand (yang, upper burner). These two points are like north and south poles of a magnet. The function of Kd1 (Yongquan) is basically to regulate fire (heat) distribution from the water elemental viewpoint while Ht8 (Shaofu) controls fire from the side of the fire (fire elemental viewpoint). Both points have an interesting connection with GV20 (Baihui) and CV1 (Huiyin). The reason why these four points are all connected is because of the polarity of the qi. In the acupuncture anatomical position with both hands up above the head standing up, there are two layers of circles; one is the Ren mai and Du mai circle, the other is the twelve meridian circle. GV20 (Baihui) belongs to yin (cold) fire, and CV1 (Huiyin) belongs to yang (hot) water. The following three charts are included to aid the understanding of this polar relation of the four points.

28n1.jpgthe core is yin and the surface is yang

In this figure, the core is yin and the surface is yang. GV20 (Baihui) and CV1 (Huiyin) are yin, Ht8 (Shaofu) and Kd1 (Yongquan) are yang from the point of view of surface and core.

This chart implies the combination of two concepts of yin/yang differentiation; lower/upper and in/out. This might look somewhat contradictory to the conventional way of making a chart with one concept of yin/yang differentiation. Please, try to see the chart as a three dimensional ball shape, not a flat circle.)

30n1.jpgBody

As illustrated in the Figure, four points form an important symmetry: Yang-yang/yin-yang/ yin-yin /yang-yin, two-layer circles of qi. Naturally, these four points share similarities in controlling cold-hot Sanjiao energy distribution. Ht8 (Shaofu) has a great effect slowing heart rate down by lowering the yang (heat) type tension in the upper burner which also increases the yin nature of lung of the upper burner resulting in more yang qi induction (deeper breathing). Ht8 (Shaofu), in comparison to GV20 (Baihui), deals with hotter, but weaker, yang energy that rises to the highest level of the body (the Sanjiao heat distribution). GV20 (Baihui) also controls heat as a sedation point, and it deals with less violent but more potent heat of the Sanjiao which rises through both Ren mai and Du mai meridians and accumulates in the head and shoulder around and above GB21 ( Jianjing) Naturally, GB21 (Jianjing) is directly involved in the distribution of heat in the entire body trunk as a pumping point of activated qi. Yang qi that spins upward from the Tantien after the activation process through Sanjiao and Mingmen points on the lower back while jing is converted into qi from the kidney and adrenal gland.

The similarity of these two points on the yang pole is that they control heat by sedating from the top. These points can easily control excessive heat surge into the upper portion of the body (upper Sanjiao) by lowering yang energy level and allowing the yin level to rise in the upper Sanjiao. In the cases of tonification of these two points, like in the case of lacking qi support in the heart or brain, we can apply moxibustion to achieve the contact with heat in the lower level. In the techniques of needling, we can tonify cold qi with a silver needle with a slow, curvy motion at the needle tip to achieve the contact with cold qi of the lower Sanjiao, which as a result will sedate the heat of the upper Sanjiao, unlike Kd1 (Yongquan) or CV1 (Huiyin) which can be treated with moxibustion to pull heat down by connecting the excessive heat of upper Sanjiao with the cold qi of the lower Sanjiao.

Applying cold energy techniques to GV20 (Baihui) or Ht8 (Shaofu) are not so effective. This is because it is much harder to pull cold qi upward than to pull hot qi downward. Hot energy, which is yang, is very mobile, but cold energy which is yin is not so mobile. In dealing with Kd1 (Yongquan) as a heat level controller, there are four basic ways to look at the yin/yang balancing. We can tonify or sedate with either acupuncture or moxibustion.

More precisely, we can either tonify or sedate cold qi or hot qi with acupuncture. With moxibustion, we can also sedate cold qi at any level of the Sanjiao, hook down hot qi from the upper or middle Sanjiao, tonify hot qi of the lower Sanjiao, or connect hot qi from bottom to top. When we are using Kd1 (Yongquan) to warm up the cold lower part of the Sanjiao, it should be tonified with moxibustion. When we want to bring excessive heat down from upper Sanjiao, we can pull down heat by using a sedation technique with sharp moxibustion heat. If we want to simply neutralize the upper Sanjiao heat with Kd1 (Yongquan), we can sedate that heat by a strong sedation needling technique after contacting the upper Sanjiao heat at the point. If we want to reinforce the function of Kd1 (Yongquan), that is to expel heavy toxic qi out, we can simply sedate the congested heat at the Kd1 (Yongquan) point.

Strangely enough, if we want to contact the upper Sanjiao heat at the Kd1 (Yongquan) point, we should insert the needle deep, and we should start doing bird pecking (actually picking out, not pecking in) technique until heat is sensed at the needle tip. Such a technique is called by our school, "fishing" or "hooking". In this case, customary thinking that heat should be on the superficial level is inappropriate. This is because when there is no blood flow, there is no clear qi flow. And, there is more heat in the deeper level of the cold feet than on the superficial level. Of course, when we are cooling a hot foot, we should insert the needle shallow.

CV1 (Huiyin) point has the very same function as Kd1 (Yongquan). But, CV1 (Huiyin) has a special characteristics of the yin qi that is more crystalline, contracting, accumulative, and immobile. Since the CV1 (Huiyin) is connecting Ren mai and Du mai which are the vital meridians of human body, many false death cases are revived by triggering the extreme yin qi and crystallized yang qi at the point to activate and disperse such qi upward through the Tantien. Another name for CV1 (Huiyin) is Xiachi meaning "extreme of the lower Sanjiao characteristics." However, do not disregard the other yin/yang aspect of CV1 (Huiyin) which is fire of water. This fire element is due to its position, the bottom gate of the Tantien. Naturally, the fire action of CV1 (Huiyin) can be vigorous, but, it is a very superficial one. The fire action is very easily lost by being crystallized into yin at this position. The fact that CV1 (Huiyin) being yin of yin, and Kd1 (Yongquan) being yang of yin is through different aspects of yin/yang differentiation than simply the aspects of cold and hot. In the three charts, Fig.1, 2, 3, the inward/outward concept is as important as the cold/hot concept, and these two concepts are overlapped in the charts.

Kd1 (Yongquan) has an important function to root the qi downward, expelling cold heavy toxic qi. Therefore the feet should be relatively colder to achieve this action. However, if the feet are kept too cold, the downward movement of yang qi of the body (mobility is yang, and the qi going down in the body is yang qi) stops and qi going upward also stops. That is to say, Taiyang/Shaoyin transformation between UB67 (Zhiyin) and Kd1 ( Yongquan) becomes hindered and the Kidney meridian cannot carry much qi to support kidney action. If there is not enough hot yang qi in the Sanjiao, the decreased level of qi flow and the sluggish movement of the bladder and kidney qi can cause cold feet indicating low vital energy. Kd1 (Yongquan), while cold yin point, can be activated usually by heat tonification techniques with moxibustion, and it is a very effective point for many urgent conditions like unconsciousness due to stroke, cardiac arrest, sun-stroke, etc.

In general, Kd1 (Yongquan) is effective to heat up the lower Sanjiao (urogenital system, lower gastrointestinal tract), to reinforce the kidney-liver qi transformation (this wood element jing-well point is a gate of tonification from the kidney to liver tonification cycle) which many times concerns nerve stress and insomnia due to hyperactivity of nerves and endocrine glands, to lower the heat level of the upper Sanjiao (especially of the head, heart, lung), and/or to stop the heat rising into the upper Sanjiao, and to free up frozen qi for emergencies.

Kd1 (Yongquan) is a son point (wood, the son of water) and is used to sedate the Kidney meridian qi flow. But, because of the strong heat/cold polarity action of the point, sedating kidney water element through this point is not easily done.

The second point of the Kidney meridian, Kd2 (Rangu), is also the first point of Yin qiao mai. Yin qiao mai (Rongmai or Dragon Channel) springs here, so its nick name is Rongquan (dragon spring). Kd2 (Rangu) is a fire of water element point resonating with the root of tongue and the water of the fire element of heart Ht3 (Shouhai) and the fire element of Sanjiao, TW2 (Yemen). All three points are very effective points for cracked tongue and many other tongue, heart conditions and bleeding conditions (especially water elemental organs, like hemorrhage of uterus, kidney, bladder, etc.). To be specific and to illustrate the difference between Kd2 (Rangu) and TW2 (Yemen) for the dry cracking tongue, one should tonify at TW2 (Yemen) because it is the water of fire of Shaoyang; and sedate at Kd2 (Rangu) because it is the fire of water of Shaoyin. In this case of sedation at Kd2 (Rangu), needling should be done at a shallow level so as not to damage the Yin qiao and Kidney meridians which feed the fundamental water element. As we all know from the primary needling techniques, for each acupuncture point there are basically five needling depths: lung, heart, spleen, liver and kidney.

Yin qiao mai starts at Kd2 (Rangu), but it is not the representative point for the Yin qiao mai, instead, Kd6 (Zhaohai) represents the Yin qiao mai.

Kd3 (Taixi) is in the opposite position of UB60 (Kunlun). As a Yuan point of the Shaoyin meridian, it communicates with Ht7 (Shenmen) of the Heart meridian (polarity); both of these points are Shu stream earth element of Shaoyin. Kd3 (Taixi) is the earth of water of Shaoyin, Ht7 (Shenmen) is earth of fire of Shaoyin. One interesting indication for both of these points is constipation. The way these points activate the colon is through splenic action going down to Tantien. UB60 (Kunlun) is a fire of water element of Taiyang, and it is on the exact opposite side of Kd3 (Taixi) and it can be specially effective for diarrhea in the morning (Shaoyin diarrhea at the time of Mao, imperial fire, yin wood).

The Luo point of the Kidney meridian, Kd4 (Dazhong), communicates with UB58 (Feiyang). Both of these points are involved in the urination activity of the kidney and the bladder. As much as the entire Kidney meridian is also called Dazhong mai, the connection with the Bladder meridian of Taiyang at this point is very often noted. A good example of applying this Luo point is to tonify at this point for backache due to the deficiency of kidney and bladder. Another good use of this Luo point is to strengthen the entire nervous system and brain activity, because Dazhong enables the tonification of both jing (endocrinal) properties of the Kidney meridian and qi (nervous) quality of the Bladder meridian.

There are three Xi points in the Kidney meridian: Kd5 (Shuiquan), Xi of Kidney meridian; Kd8 (Jiaoxin), Xi of Yinqia; and Kd9 (Zhubin), Xi of Yin wei. When we are using Xi points to release the over flowing qi of the meridian (e.g., over thrusting and forming wind element in the flow), it is important not to over-release to cause weakness of any other benign areas. To illustrate the examples of the different use of these three Xi points, in wind sedation: Shuiquan is very effective for bladder, uterus and kidney contraction, Jiaoxin is very effective for contraction of vagina, testicle, urinary tract, heart, diaphragm, tongue, eosphagus (following Yin qiao mai); and Zhubin is very effective for contraction of large intestine (illiocecal valve), gall bladder, pancreas, vocal cord, etc.

Kd6 (Zhaohai) has another famous name, Yin qiao. This is the point where so much is happening. Zhaohai is a confluent point of Yin qiao mai, and is the practical valve between the Kidney meridian and Yin qiao channel. Together with Jiaxin, it is a coalescent point for Yin qiao mai. Together with UB62 (Shenmai), the confluent point of Yang qiao, it balances Shaoyin qi of the Kidney and Taiyang of Bladder meridians. It is also yin and yang between Yin qiao and Yang qiao. Because of the yin and yang balancing effect of Zhaohai and Shenmai, they are very effective for balancing jing (organic function, emotion) and shen (mental and nerve function). Of course, Shenmai and Zhaohai are a polarity pair. And, Yin qiao and Yang qiao are a polarity meridian pair.

As a representing point of the Yin qiao mai, Zhaohai does almost everything Yin qiao mai would do just as if it has the full control of the Yin qiao mai. In many old texts of acupuncture, Zhaohai has been described as one of the two most important points for gynecological conditions. The other point is Sp6 (Sanyinjiao). One reason is that the connections of the meridians of Kidney, Liver, Gall Bladder happen at the same places as where Yin qiao, Yin wei, Chong and Dai mai communicate, which is thru the Ren mai points on the lower abdomen (Guanyuan, Qugu, Zhongji, Shenque).

Shenque also connects with GB26 (Daimai), and thru Shenque, Zhaohai connects to GB26 (Daimai) on the Gall Bladder meridian, forming another polarity points pair. Another reason is that Zhaohai is in polarity with Ren mai thru Lu7 (Lieque). Lieque is in supporting relation with the Chong mai thru Sp4 (Gongsun).

Another important fact of Zhaohai is that Zhaohai can release overflow of qi just like the Xi point. Simply because it is branching the Kidney meridian out into Yin qiao mai. Taking advantage of all these facts of the Zhaohai, a good example of indications is appendicitis. The way it helps appendicitis is so effective (usually used with Shanqiu (Sp5), you can decide against the diagnosis when Zhaohai does not eliminate the pain around the appendix, almost immediately. Another famous point for appendicitis is Kunlun, in the same way. But, the mechanisms of these two points working against appendicitis are not the same. Zhaohai reaches Jingming (UB1) through Shenmai and Yang qiao mai, and meets Kidney meridian, Stomach meridian and Bladder meridian at the point. Since Zhubin reaches the same point, but thru a different course, Zhubin and Zhaohai are often used together to control complex hot and cold situation of kidney and bladder, like bladder infection by bacteria and yeast at the same time (or, yeast infection overlapped by bacterial infection).

Traditionally, Fuliu is the only point on the Kidney meridian to be used with moxibustion to tonify kidney qi. The most interesting fact in doing moxibustion on Fuliu is that we are applying fire to adjust the metal that is the mother of the water element of the Kidney meridian. In general, the Kidney meridian contains lesser blood and greater qi (Shao Xue Duo qi), which means that Shaoyin quality of imperial fire is its main qi characteristics. This can lead many scholars into miscomprehension. It sounds fine to tonify Shaoyin to strengthen the Kidney meridian with moxibustion, but, in practice, it is very difficult not to weaken Jing (blood factor of Kidney meridian, lesser blood in the kidney already) by amplifying qi (greater qi in the Kidney meridian already) with fire in moxibustion. This is not an absolute rule for Fuliu being the only point to be handled with moxibustion in the meridian, but Fuliu is a good reminder of such fact of the Kidney meridian. It is very important to understand the simple five elemental rule in this example that can later lead into much more complicate involvements. Another important concept in "Shao Xue Duo qi " in the Kidney meridian is that the meridian can easily lack qi because it needs to keep high content of qi than xue. It does not have surplus of qi to give away.

The locations of Fuliu and Sanjiaoxin have been controversial for ages; according to one school, Fuliu is located in front of Sanjiaoxin, and according to the other school (most), Sanjiaoxin is located in front of Fuliu. Regarding which is the correct locations, we should understand the characteristics of Sanjiaoxin more precisely. Sanjiaoxin is the Xi of Yin qiao, and also, the coalescent point of Yin qiao. Sanjiaoxin is the point that directly connects to the Stomach meridian thru Yin qiao mai. Sanjiaoxin and Quepen (St12) are in direct contact. Sanjiaoxin controls the flow of the three yin meridians of the legs by letting them open to the three yang meridians of legs. In order to balance the Yang ming of the Stomach meridian, Sanjiaoxin should locate on a more symmetrical position to the Stomach meridian. Be careful in the symmetry of yin/yang here. It is not the 180 degree opposite side of the circle, instead, it is the mirror view.

Lets look at the Fig. A, and fold along the horizontal line that divides yin and yang. Yang ming of the leg meridian flows very closely to the anterior crest of the tibia. The anterior crest of the tibia is like a border line between Yang ming and Taiyin of the leg. The entire posterior view of the leg is dominated by the Taiyang meridian (Taiyang meridian dominates the back portion of the human body because other yang meridians tend to curve to the front. And, for this reason, the Taiyang meridian of the leg doubles or triples the flow to protect the back.) The Taiyin and Jueyin of the leg become pushed to the medial surface of the tibia. The Kidney meridian is pushed close to the medial margin of the tibia. Naturally, a point connecting these two, Yang ming and Shaoyin meridians should be close to the border, the tibia, to be more symmetrically located, especially because the Yangming meridian locates close to the border. It is correct to locate Sanjiaoxin 1/2 cun in front of Fuliu, instead of locating Fuliu in front of Sanjiaoxin. When you locate Sanjiaoxin correctly, you should be able to feel strong sensation reaching Quepen of the Stomach meridian. This way, Sanjiaoxin compresses the 3 yin leg meridians and connects to the Yang ming of the leg. Also, this compressing movement of the Kidney meridian toward the other two yin meridians causes the Sanyinjiao (three yin connection, SP6) to open up on the Spleen meridian.

At Sanyinjiao, many unusual activities happen as the three types of yin qi are pulled at the "correct" position of the Taiyin, once, and then, escape back to disorderly positioning again. The anatomical twist of the tibia and fibula also contributes to this disorderly distribution of the 3 yin leg meridians on the calf. We should discuss the seemingly reversed distribution of Jueyin and Taiyin under the Sanyinjiao level at the time we discuss the Spleen meridian or Liver meridian. However, the most important fact is that because of these disorderly manners of the Jueyin and Taiyin of the leg, the special point like Sanyinjiao is created on the Spleen meridian. At Sanyinjiao, the torque of 3 combining yin qi throws the Jueyin meridian very deep into the bone level, and pushes the Taiyin more superficial. And, since the Jueyin of the leg becomes very deep, actual flow of the meridian is not so reversed with Taiyin, even though the anatomical twist of the ankle joint misrepresents the Jueyin flow of the leg. The actual distribution of the two meridians can be viewed at the angle of the foot matching the angle of the hand by medial rotation of the foot. At such an angle, visualize the Jueyin meridian in the middle of the metatarsal bone, and the Taiyin on the surface. This will give a correct visual allocation of the meridians of foot.

At Sanyinjiao, we can contact the Liver meridian in the very deep level (bone level), the Spleen meridian in the superficial level, and the Kidney meridian in the middle. Locating kidney qi at the shallower level than liver qi level is very unusual, however, that is what we actually encounter at Sanyinjiao. Getting back to Fuliu and Sanjiaoxin, surprisingly, one of the important texts of acupuncture, Chin Kiu Da Cheng, illustrates the wrong locations for these two points.

The course of the Kidney meridian should not skip the Sanyinjiao of the Spleen meridian. Between Sanjiaoxin and Zhubin, Sanyinjiao pulls the Kidney meridian anteriorly before it releases back to its original course.

33n1.jpgA practical guide to the division of meridian energy in left leg

As we have already discussed before, Zhubin is a remarkable point of the Kidney meridian. This is where the Kidney meridian and Spleen meridian (Fushe, Sp13) combine thru Yin wei mai. Further, it provides the contact with the Liver meridian thru qi men (Liv14), and also, the contact with the Ren mai thru Tiantu (Ren22). Fushe connects to Guanyuan and Zhongji of Ren mai to move to the next point Fujie (Sp14). This means that Zhubin has almost direct contact with Guanyuan of Ren, reaching Zhongji. This is the reason why this point is so effective for lower abdominal conditions, and problems of testicles by evoking the actions of both kidney and Ren. Basically, Zhubin is a point that belongs more in the Yin wei mai than the Kidney meridian. It is a natural Xi point for the Yin wei releasing its overflow very easily to the Yin qiao by Kidney meridian flow (at Sanjiaoxin), which means that Zhubin obtains extra benefits from Renying (St9), and even from the Bladder meridian thru Jingming (UB1).

At Jingming, Yang qiao is met, and Zhubin is resonated by Zhaohai thru Shenmai. Some ancient texts consider Zhubin as "the accumulation point of Yin qiao mai", and consider it belongs both to Yin qiao and Yin wei. Its strong Xi point quality has been taken advantage by being used as a detoxification point. As Zhubin leaks the Yin wei mai flow, it also leaks the Pericardium meridian thru the connection with the confluent point of Yin wei, Neiguan (P6). Neiguan is paired by Waiguan (TB5), which means Zhubin is involved with the Sanjiao meridian activities though Yang wei mai.

Yin Gu is such an important point for so many kidney involvements. It is hard not to mention its WATER elemental quality in the WATER of SHAOYIN of LOWER extremities. It is very worthwhile thinking about this over and over again. The utmost crystalline water elemental qi can be contacted only thru this point throughout the entire body. You can tonify this element so easily thru this point, and you can even affect the liver thru Yin qiao mai, because Yin Gu connects directly to the Liver meridian by connecting Qu Quan (Liv8). One thing to remember is that, because of such five elemental relation between Yin Gu and Qu Quan (water of water, water of wood, water being mother of wood in the meridian level, and in the relation between the element of the point and the element of the meridian), tonification of Yin Gu automatically tonifies the Liver meridian, as well as the Kidney meridian. Sedation is rarely recommended on this point, just like Guan Yuan. Sedation of such an element can be achieved at Sanyinjiao at mid-level depth without damaging Jing of the kidney. Yin Gu also connects down to the center of heel. For this reason, Yin Gu has often been selected as an extra point for treating sharp burning pain of the heels. We all know how famous Yangchi (SJ4) is for providing immediately usable instant Sanjiao vital energy. Yin Gu is the pairing point for Yangchi.

While Yangchi provides true Shaoyang minister fire type of vigour to the body, Yin Gu cultivates the true core of Jing. This is a must point for all types of kidney deficiency. Another important fact of this point is that we should be extra careful locating it between two tendons at the medial border of the popliteal fossa. Make sure that it is located exactly, and the needle tip should be in the proper depth and angle (mid-kidney level, very shallow angle of approximately 15 degree upward).

Otherwise, we do not fully benefit from this miraculous point. A very interesting meridian connection happens at this point. Yin Gu directly contacts Changqiang of the Du. As we have already described, through Du mai, Yin Gu reaches Mingmen and both kidneys. From Mingmen, Yin Gu extends to Sanjiao of the Bladder meridian. Through Changqiang, Yin Gu contacts Ren mai, than Guanyuan. In other words, Yin Gu enters the Tantien in two ways simultaneously thru two very important part of the body, kidneys and Guanyuan (its nick name is Xia Tantien, meaning lower Tantien point; upper Tantien, or Shang-Tantien is Rentang, middle Tantien, or Zhong Tantien is Shanzhong). From Changqiang, Yin Gu also connects to Chong mai thru Henggu (K11) and CV1 (Huiyin). Chong sources out from Tantien. Now, we can clearly see how Yin Gu is sending water element Yin qi upward in three complete routes toward the core of the Tantien. The connection between Yin Gu and Yin ling quan (Sp9) provides the strong influence of Yin Gu to the three vital organs involved in reproduction (liver, spleen, kidney).

At Henggu, there are many meridians crossing. Chong mai, Ren, Spleen, Stomach meridians are all communicating with the Kidney meridian at this point (along the superior border of the symphysis pubis). The most strong connection here, of course, thru Chong mai, is the Ren mai meridian at CV1 (Huiyin) and Qugu. This makes Henggu connect to the Du. According to a classic, Jiukonglun, Chong mai rises from qi chong (St30) and connects to Henggu, instead of rising from CV1 (Huiyin) of the Ren. Even though this is not a proper allocation of the Chong mai path, such connection still supports the strong communication between Henggu and the Stomach meridian through qi chong. Chongmen (Sp12) communicates with Henggu to connect with the Spleen meridian. Chong mai, from Chongmen, flows through the Spleen meridian and reaches Gongsun (Sp4), the confluent point of Chong. Because Chong, at Youmen, fades into the chest, entering heart and lung, Henggu is selected to treat "false fire" type of yin deficiency syndromes involving upper Sanjiao heat, including the disorders of reproductive system and urogenital organs.

Dahe is not such a popular point in the Kidney meridian, however, there are many unusual activities going on at Dahe. Due to two neighboring points of the meridian, Henggu and Qi xue, the selection of Dahe is not so often made. Another reason for not being often selected is that Dahe locates very deep, and it is very hard to reach the effective level of depth. Dahe also supports Zhongji of Ren. A very strong horizontal resonance between Ren, Kidney, Stomach and Spleen meridians occurs at this point. Fushe of the Spleen meridian and Yin wei mai even more strongly relate to Dahe. Dahe has often been considered as a part of Yinwei (the nick name of Dahe is Yinwei). Dahe contacts directly with Fushe (Sp13), Jimai (Lv12), Zhongji (Ren3) and Guanyuan (Ren4), and enters into the urinary bladder. Dahe is usually selected as a health point, not a medical one. It is because Dahe affects kidney and its related urogenital organs through splenic activity and the Yinwei connection rather than through powerful Chong mai, Yin qiao mai and Ren mai actions. Due to strong involvement of Tantien and kidneys at this level, Kidney meridian at this point gets extremely deep up to the organic level (bladder), and gets merged back out into Ren mai between Zhongji and Guanyuan. Than, with the help of strong Chong mai action at Qi xue, it appears back on the correct position and level of depth of the Shaoyin meridian continuing its path upward.

Left qixue is called "Baomen" meaning "Gate of Womb". Right qixue is called "Tzehu" meaning "Home of Fetus". Qi xue connects Ren mai and Chong. While Guanyuan is the proper point to tonify Tantien qi, qixue provides Chong qi and Ren mai qi to the uterus. And, of course, kidney qi. Qi xue has been the most popular selection for all types of infertility for this reason. Bianque, a legendary physician, strongly suggested the use of Qi xue for infertility with moxibustion tonifying techniques. Qi xue is also very famous for Chong qi control, and selected for dysmenorrhea, especially to control the flow of blood, either positively or negatively. Baomen is more related to period control for women, and Zuhu is more related to ovulation and fertility. There are many points connecting Ren mai and Chong. But, Qi xue is the most powerful Ren/Chong connecting point, therefore it can even be called the Luo of the Chong.

Zhongzhu is also a strong Chong/Ren mai connecting point thru Yinjiao of the Ren. Zhongzhu can be selected for the same actions as Qi ixue's without strong impact possible at Qi xue or at Yinjiao of Ren. Since Yinjiao is a accumulation point of the Ren, Zhongzhu naturally bleeds into Yinjiao, and into the Ren. For this reason, Zhongzhu's use in breaking the blocks between middle and lower Sanjiaos is very effective. Commonly Shenque of the Ren mai (umblicus) is the landmark of dividing between middle and lower Sanjiao, but Yinjiao, Huangshu, Tianshu of the Stomach meridian are actually forming the border line between the two Sanjiao's. Naturally, Huangshu has a greater influence to the activity of Yinjiao than Zhongzhu.

Before Zhongzhu, Siman is on the same horizontal level as Shimen of the Ren. Shimen is so well known for disconnecting Ren mai qi that feeds into the uterus. Siman is communicating with Ren mai thru Shimen and its action in the Ren/Chong connection is to stop Chong qi flow into the Ren mai and uterus. This activity is taken advantage of in selecting Siman to control the flow of menstruation without damaging the ability of getting pregnant in the female body. Siman is energetically resonating with Xuanzhong (GB39), the influential point for marrow, and Siman is called "marrow house". In the same way Xuanzhong pairs with Sanyinjiao, Siman retains more horizontal connection with Spleen and Liver meridians. Water is in the core of the extreme fire. When fire qi reaches its extreme, it starts crystallizing into water qi. Jing is yin extreme water (with fire in its core), and marrow is yin extreme of Jing. If we call Yin Gu the point of Jing, Siman is the point of marrow that is the most extreme yin nature of human body. Naturally, Siman can not be substituted for Yin Gu, nor vice versa.

However, if a disease is related to the course of Jing and marrow transformation, Siman and Yin Gu have to be artificially resonated by proper acupuncture techniques to contact the two extreme yin manifestations of yin category versus yang. Jing is an end product, and so is marrow. However, marrow is not the final goal of yin qi. Jing is more of a goal for yin qi transformation in the body. Marrow is the product of Jing, however, it, in turn, controls the Jing development. This is just like the brain controlling nervous system, even though nervous system bears the brain. Another example is in the relation between 12 meridians and Ren/Du; 12 meridians bear the Ren/Du, but Ren/Du mai controls over 12 meridians. This is the reason why Yin Gu and Siman are so different from each other, while both are dealing with yin of yin.

Looking at the meridian distribution on the abdomen and chest, stomach meridian of Yang ming is closer to the Shaoyin Kidney meridian than the other two yin meridians of Liver of Jueyin and Spleen of Taiyin. The Yang ming Stomach meridian, like Taiyang Bladder meridian on the back, dominates the front of the body and it becomes the major Wei qi (protective qi) flow of the front. Since the Yang ming wei qi rather floats over the skin surface, the Stomach meridian flows very superficially, while the Kidney meridian flows quite deep in the flesh. In other words, the Stomach meridian does not really take over the space between Spleen and Kidney meridian on the same anterior yin level surface of body. It is over the layer of 3 yin meridians on the yin surface (abdominal surface), and for this reason, the Stomach meridian does not readily communicate horizontally with other 3 yin meridians of the leg on the abdominal and chest area.

At Huangshu, the Kidney meridian enters directly into the kidneys (adrenal glands) thru the bladder. Which means that Chong mai enters into the kidneys directly thru this point. And, Huangshu further connects to Shenshu (UB23), Zhishi (UB52), Huangmen (UB51), Sanjiao shu (UB22) and Mingmen (Du4). Because Huangshu and Shenshu, Huangshu and Huangmen form two pairs of polarity points for the kidneys, the usage of these pairs in regards to kidney conditions is very diverse. Huangshu, as the connecting point between Du mai and Chong, thru Mingmen, presents a very unique action. The Chong syndrome (conditions caused by Chong mai flow) due to nervous system, like a sudden period due to nerve stress, are well controlled at this point. Therefore, infertility due to qi, not Xue, can be aided thru this point. Of course, all other Chong conditions due to Du mai conditions are applicable (conditions of heart, lung, diaphragm, kidney, uterus, ovary, genital, and etc. that are due to mental stress). The letter "Huang" usually means "tip of sternum or diaphragm", however, in the two points like Huangshu and Huangmen, it indicates the tip of the kidneys (adrenal glands). It is very proper for Chong mai to be connected with Du mai at Huangshu, because Huangshu is directly dealing with adrenal, instead of direct dealing with kidneys. The kidneys and adrenals both deal with Jing, but they are in yin/yang relation. The adrenals deal more with qi (especially wei qi), while kidneys deal more with Xue (and, yingqi). The adrenals respond to Du mai (and nerves) following the six qi rule, while kidneys respond to organic balance following the five elemental rule. Huangshu is also a dividing point between lower and middle Sanjiao in connection with Yinjiao of Ren.

Shangqu is the point where Chong mai knots and amplifies its flow to add the strength by induction of Yingqi of Ren mai. In Renmai, through the actions of Shangwan, Zhongwan, Xiawan, three Ren mai points, Yang ming qi of the Stomach meridian entering into the stomach organ transforms into Yingqi of Ren. And, this Yingqi joins the Chong stream at Shangqu which belongs in both Shaoyin and Chong. Therefore, Shangqu is a transformation point of Yingqi to Xueqi of Chong. At this level, the Kidney meridian is more related to Ren mai activities than its pertaining organ, kidney. Since the Stomach Yang ming qi prevails in the entire upper abdominal area, a point like Shangqu can not penetrate deep into organs or other yin meridians. The stream of Yingqi joining Chong (from Ren mai to Shaoyin) is much more powerful, and it is hard for the point to root out into organs. Other than the contact with Liver meridian thru Zhangmen, at Shangqu, not much connection is made with the urogenital organs. Zhangmen (Liv13) is also a spleen mu point, and this amplifies the spleen influence over stomach depending upon liver response. Sedation at Shangqu for stomach cramps is through Zhangmen and the liver organ, not thru resonance with yangming stomach meridian. It is also thru releasing condensation (cold) of stomach qi thru Chong mai which is accepting Yingqi from Zhongwan of Ren.

For another instance, the application of Shangqu for uterine cramps is not done by directly following the Chong or Kidney meridian paths (even though Yin Du mai and Tonggu are resonated by Zhangmen, Shangqu does not directly resonate Yin Du mai or Tonggu). In this case, Shangqu controls over the rejected spleen qi by liver (which is already liver qi), and in turn, sent to the uterus. Here, Shangqu affects liver through Zhangmen instead of Chong and Ren mai directly, and it only resonates Chong mai and Ren mai at the lower Sanjiao, not at the horizontal level.

Shiguan and Yin Du mai have very similar actions as Shangqu, including the subtle contact with stomach, liver and spleen. The affect towards the entire Chong mai is almost the same as what we saw in the relationship of Shangqu with Chong mai. But, very differently from Shangqu, Shiguan has an abrupt, hard and thin flow of qi which is due to the normalizing action of Chong mai after the strong surge of extra Chong qi at Shangqu. For this reason, working with Shiguan requires extra attention, especially in the cases of pregnant females. It is very easy to disconnect Chong qi at this point. Reminding us of another important basic fact, Chong qi is always contacted by needle at the deeper level than kidney Shaoyin qi, and it is because Chong mai (its nick name is Xuehai, meaning ocean of Xue) has more Xue than qi (Duo Xue Shao qi). The letter "Shi" means stone. In chinese, stone means sterile. The letter "Shi" in Shimen of Ren mai is the same character as in Shiguan.

Yin Du, being at the level of and contact with Zhongwan which is connected with the lung, is the first direct involvement of the Kidney meridian with the lung thru the meridian path thru Zhongwan. The only effective use of this point as a Chong point is to treat infertility that is due to spleen and stomach related Yingqi deficiency. Yin Du, like Shangqu, is one of the strong transformation points between Yingqi and Xue. Zhongwan is a point where yin yang organs (Zhang and Fu) are fed with transforming Yingqi, and where all meridians pass through. Yin Du, also, has the quality of feeding the Kidney meridian as Zhongwan sends its Yingqi. The kidney qi that passes thru the Liver and echoes at Zhangmen (Liv13), also, resonates at Yin Du mai thru Zhongwan. Zhongwan and Zhangmen form a polarity pair. To connect Zhangmen (liver and spleen activity) to Chong mai, or to feed Yingqi of Zhongwan to Chong mai, but without involving other meridians, and without endangering the normal function of Shangqu and Shiguan, Yin Du mai is a very proper selection. To lead nourishing (Ying) qi of the stomach earth element type kidney Jing into the liver or spleen, Yin Du mai is very often selected.

Tonggu has a good energetic relation with lung and liver. It is not a direct connection with Zhangmen of the Liver meridian like Yin Du mai (Tonggu has some resonance with Zhangmen), but the indirect involvement with lung and liver better serves to resonate Liver and Lung meridians with Du. This situation of Tonggu is often taken advantage of to treat emotional instability, especially fear turning into anger with disharmony between heart and lung. Also, Tonggu can be resonated in the course of liver to lung qi transmission. This characteristics of Tonggu is applied to control the spastic conditions in the respiratory system. The horizontal connection with Shangwan of Ren mai lets this kidney point involve with epigastric conditions, of course with the spastic and contracting liver qi involvement.

Youmen is the last point of the Chong mai, and from here Chong disperses into chest cavity to contact lung, pericardium and heart. Youmen is the gate of qi entering into the earth element (center) stomach. The direct connection between Youmen and the cardiac orifice of stomach lets this point have a good control over keeping or releasing (rejecting) food. The energetical similarity between the action of this point receiving qi (Yingqi), and keeping it, or loosing it, and the action of memory causes a polarity pair in one location in this point. In other words, to reserve memories, Youmen must be in the receptive mode. The involvement of stomach action and heart action at Youmen can cause vomiting if heart Shaoyin rushes into kidney Shaoyin thru Youmen. Such conditions are seen often in the emotional crisis, like fear of losing, fear of detachment. In such case Ht8 (Shaofu) and Youmen can be used as releasing points, and these two points can slow the heart rate by giving full movement to heart by freeing the heart qi to lung and pericardium, and make the breathing deeper. Connection of Ht8 (Shaofu) with GV20 (Baihui) also allows the release of nerve tension, and the connection with CV1 (Huiyin) allows storing qi, and the connection with Kd1 (Yongquan) allows transformation of liver anxiety into useful kidney vital qi.

Bulang is the first kidney point on the chest moving away from Ren. The cause of this distance from Ren mai is the sternum in the center. And, naturally, Shaoyin qi positions where it can obtain the proper depth. As a result, the resonance of Ren mai to Kidney meridian becomes less effective. From this point on, the Kidney meridian involves more to local organs in the chest, especially, lung, because of the strong yin/yang polarity relation between kidney and lung. Due to such kidney/lung polarity, internal flow of the Lung meridian and the Shaoyin Kidney meridian flow through the same channel from Guanyuan level moving upward up to Tiantu of Ren, (at Tiantu, lung and kidney qi separate); the Kidney meridian is under the lung channel, and Chong mai is under the Kidney meridian. The six points here on are horizontally connected with Ren mai and Yangming of the Stomach meridian. The undercurrent of the upper Stomach meridian from Qishe (St11) contributes to the Kidney meridian downward to Bulang, and upward to the root of the tongue. Shufu connects to both Qihu and Qishe of the Stomach meridian, and Shufu reaches the Quepen (St12). Quepen connects directly with the Lung meridian thru Zhongfu and connects with the Large Intestine meridians, also. Quepen extends to Jiquan (H1). As we have noted before, Quepen and Sanjiaoxin are in direct contact. The six points on the chest, therefore, retain stronger influence by the stomach meridian on the chest (St11 to St 18). If we select one stomach point that influences and resonates the strongest on these six points, it is, of course, Quepen.

Quepen of the Stomach meridian will be carefully discussed in the future for these complex involvement with many other meridians. Bulang is a point where Kidney meridian separates from Ren mai and Chong, also. Bulang helps the kidney qi exit from yin to yang (more yang than the previous 11 points). The eleven points from Henggu to Youmen are in the correct position as the Shaoyin leg meridian. These eleven points are forming Chong mai to support Xue activity of the Kidney meridian. Because of Ren mai supporting Chong, the actual Kidney meridian is lifted above Chong mai flow transforming into more yang type kidney qi. As a result, Chong is flowing in a deeper level, while the Kidney meridian surfaces with more heat. Dahe, as we have discussed already, however penetrates very deep up to the bladder. Precisely speaking, the eleven points of the Kidney meridian, not of Chong mai, are involved with heat in the kidney shaoyin water category. This fact is often applied in treating infectious condition of urogenital system, ear, eye, etc.

Shenfeng is a place where Shen of the heart is sealed in. The heart qi extending to Shenfeng releases into the Kidney meridian, while Youmen tends to release kidney qi into the heart. Quepen and Jiquan are resonated on this point, and it is important not to shock this quiet merger of two Shaoyin qi (yin and yang, kidney and heart). Shenfeng, Shencang, Shendao (Du11), Shenmen (Ht7), Shentang (Bl44) are all related to the heart (Shen, spirit), and they all pull qi out of the lung and inject it into the heart. All these points are vital points selected in "Dimmak" attack in internal kungfu to cause cardiac arrest at exhalation.

Yuzhong and Shufu have good contacts with lung, heart, nose and tongue. Yuzhong, being more yin, it involves with yin water of these organs more closely than Shufu does. Yuzhong is connected to mucus glands (yin), while Shufu is connected to the surface temperature (yang). For example, Yuzhong can be used to slow down excessive salivation, and Shufu can be used to treat cracked tongue or dry nose.

Shufu is the last point of the Kidney meridian connecting to pericardium and the heart. The direct connection with Qi hu, Qi she, Quepen, Zhongfu and Jiquan has been discussed already. Shufu, as it extends to the heart, provides a polarity with Shanzhong (Ren17) which is a Mu point of the pericardium. Shufu is, therefore, in contact more with the heart than the lung. Since it has a direct contact with Quepen, Shufu is useful releasing heart-to-kidney shaoyin qi thru Quepen.

The relationship between Quepen, Jianjing (GB21), Jugu (LI16), Renying (St9), Dazhui (Du14), Naohu (Du17) should be further discussed in the future.

Around the Kidney meridian, Shufu, Qi hu, Qi she, Quepen, Sanjiaoxin, Zhubin, Shenmai, Zhaohai, Jiquan, Zhongfu, Renying, Dahe, Zhongwan, Shanzhong, Gongsun, Kd1 (Yongquan), Ht8 (Shaofu), GV20 (Baihui), CV1 (Huiyin) and many other major points are all communicating with each other relating the activities of the lung, kidney, heart, liver, spleen of yin organs and stomach and all other yang organs directly thru the qi path, and indirectly thru polarity and resonance. Ren, Chong, Yin qiao, Yinwei, Du, Yang qiao of extra channels are also directly connected to the Kidney meridian and all other meridians are closely communicating with the Kidney meridian.

The Kidney meridian extends its Mu point, through resonance of Zhangmen, in the Shaoyang leg meridian at Jingmen (GB25). Jingmen forms a polarity pair with Shenshu (UB23). Jingmen is a transformation point where Shaoyin can be turned into Shaoyang. One of the profound and unique acupuncture techniques is in converting a type of perverse qi into more manageable qi, or exchanging the depth of perverse qi, usually from deeper level to more superficial level. Jingmen, as a kidney transformation point into shaoyang qi, is very useful point converting and superficializing fatal perverse qi action of kidneys, like terminal kidney cancer. To achieve such converting action at Jingmen, Shenshu is selected as a pair, and Shenshu is used to inject pure vital qi of kidney to replace and fill in the vacuum. Guanyuan, Yin Gu, Yangchi, etc. are not capable of filling in the gap created by the converting action of Jingmen. Energetically, the only opposite polar energy of Shenmen balances the Jingmen. All cancerous diseases severely involving bone marrow, like Hodgekin's disease, can be helped by resonance of Jingmen to Zhangmen, than to Dashu, Xuehai, Xuanzhong, Siman, and Geshu, etc. However, one should not try conversion technique unless he is sure of the method, because it could disperse perverse qi into healthy yang organs instantly.
Polarity Points

To organize some important polarity points mentioned in this Kidney meridian study, the following polarity relationships between a set of points and channels are added for better understanding.

Zhaohai is in polarity with Lieque, and vice versa. Lieque is in polarity with Houxi, and vice versa. Houxi is in polarity with Shenmai, and vice versa. Shenmai is in polarity with Zhaohai, and vice versa.

Neiquan is in polarity with Gongsun, and vice versa. Gongsun is in polarity with Linqi (Zulinqi), and vice versa. Linqi is in polarity with Weiguan, and vice versa. Weiguan is in polarity with Neiguan, and vice versa.

Zhaohai represents Yin qiao mai. Lieque represents Ren mai. Houxi represents Du mai. Shenmai represents Yang qiao mai.

Neiguan represents Yin wei mai. Gongsun represents Chong mai. Linqi represents Dai mai. Weiguan represents Yang wei mai.

Yin qiao mai is in polarity with Ren mai, and vice versa. Ren mai is in polarity with Du mai, and vice versa. Du mai is in polarity with Yang qiao mai, and vice versa. Yang qiao mai is in polarity with Yin qiao mai, and vice versa.

Yin wei mai is in polarity with Chong mai, and vice versa. Chong mai is in polarity with Dai mai, and vice versa. Dai mai is in polarity with Yang wei mai, and vice versa. Yang wei mai is in polarity with Yin wei mai, and vice versa.

Yin qiao mai and Yin wei mai support each other. Ren mai and Chong mai support each other. Du mai and Dai mai support each other. Yang qiao mai and Yang wei mai support each other.

Zhaohai and Neiguan support each other. Lieque and Gongsun support each other. Houxi and Linqi support each other. Shenmai and Weiguan support each other.

When one of these eight points is manipulated, all other seven points are simultaneously, and directly, as we see in the Fig. 5, activated in seven different ways. Combining any of these eight points requires the proper techniques of needling, and one should be able to predict the outcome of the balance between the eight special channels and its physiological manifestation immediately after treatment.

37n1.jpgFig. 5 Polarity of Jijingbamai (8 Extra Channels)

These eight special channels and their points, also known as eight confluent points, are the core of the "JIMENBAFA", an acupuncture system based on "Bagua", eight trigrams, and eight extra channels. Jimenbafa system is one of the old taoistic acupuncture systems which is not commonly under-stood or taught in the more traditional schools of acupuncture. However, the discussion in this article should enhance the understanding of such interesting relationships between these major points and meridians. And, the more proper use of these points should be encouraged. After the complete understanding of the entire twenty channels, we should someday discuss such intriguing and interesting taoistic systems like Jimenbafa (8), Taichichinfa (2), Sishangchinfa (4), Wuxingchinfa (5), Baguachinfa (8), Jiukongchinfa (9), Chixingchinfa (7), Liuqichinfa (6), Tzewuchinfa (12), etc. As a matter of fact, any point formula in acupuncture has been based on one or more of these I Ching systems, not from experiences or collections of "Ashi" points. Naturally, any altering of formulas should be done without contradicting the systems implied.

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