Eastern Mind

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Introduction

Though we are sometimes governed by a desire to follow one pure form or philosophy, there is great potential for healing and insight in the combination of therapies, especially if a certain synergy exists between the two forms.

The origin of Qigong is unclear. While the combination of the Chinese characters for qi and gong, together meaning a skillful practice of applying life-force energy, first appears in the Jin Dynasty (265-420C.E.) in a Daoist text titled Records of the Clear Mirror of Religion (Johnson 2005, Vol. 1 25), many sources believe variant forms of the practice began in very ancient times; the earliest references point to the 17th century B.C.E, over one thousand years before Hippocrates developed his famous medical philosophy. Qigong (Chi Kung) was first introduced to the United States in the 1950s. Since then its popularity has increased dramatically, for various reasons (a change in immigration laws implemented during the Johnson Administration, for example). These days, an Internet search on the terms Qigong and Chi Kung yield over 5.2 million results. Despite this current popularity, most Americans likely associate the practice of Qigong with the gentle movements we see performed by the elderly, or perhaps as the warm-up exercises for a martial arts class. Though not entirely incorrect, this limited focus represents only a small portion of the true potential of the art of Qigong, a far-reaching, multi-level worldview of mind-body enhancement and transformation, realized and activated through a genuine practice of meditation.

Coincident to the birth of Qigong in America, a young American osteopath was beginning to publish his curious findings regarding the structure and function of human cranial bones. Contrary to the current paradigm, Dr. William Sutherland theorized that the sutures of the bones were "beveled, like the gills of a fish, indicating articular mobility for a respiratory mechanism (Sutherland 1962, 13)," resulting fromthe emptying and filling of cerebrospinal fluid within the dural membranes and subarachnoid space. Sutherland's pioneering research was the foundation for what we know today as Craniosacral Therapy (CST), a therapeutic method addressing blockages in the craniosacral system generally credited to another American osteopath, John E. Upledger.

Ironically, both of these practices look quite simple to the observer. In fact, one might say that with CST, nothing appears to be happening at all. Perhaps this is why both modalities are so widely misunderstood and discarded by the general public. How can non-doing be effective? Why on Earth would visualizing energy flowing through the body be such an abundant source of longevity and transcendence?

I will answer these questions by discussing some of the profound healing capabilities of Qigong, and how this most ancient of healing modalities blends with and deepens the remarkable healing potential of Craniosacral Therapy. I will first provide a brief overview of CST as it is most commonly understood and practiced in the West. I will then look at some of the relevant Qigong forms of inner alchemy visualizations which may be used in conjunction with those techniques to enhance their healing potential. I will then expand my discussion of CST to the less-known methods involving deep states of meditation, and show how these methods seamlessly blend with and compliment the ancient practice of qi cultivation. Upon conclusion, the reader should have a sense for how the union of these two forms of energy work creates a unique and potent modality for the modern healthcare practitioner.
Craniosacral 101

In order to understand the power of Craniosacral Therapy, one must first have an understanding of the basic premise upon which it was developed. As previously stated, Sutherland's groundbreaking work on cranial bone movements along their sutures laid the foundation for other professionals in the field to confirm his findings and further develop the idea of a rhythmical expansion and contraction of the cranial bones. Most notable among these other scientists was American osteopath John Upledger, who experimented and published results confirming both cranial bone movement and support for a cranial "wave" independent from other biorhythms. Upledger found that not only the cranial bones show articular movement in response to this pulse, the entire human skeleton exhibits a palpable response to the cranial wave. Upledger concluded, as did Sutherland before him, that any restrictions of this rhythmical pulse would result in disorder and eventually disease. Upledger developed his own treatment style to address these restrictions, and when he began to teach his work to students who were not osteopaths he generated the term 'CranioSacral Therapy,' based on the corresponding movement between cranium and sacrum.

Thirty years later there is still debate on the existence of a cranial wave (see Ferre 1990, Hartman 2002 and Kazanjian 1999).1 Perhaps this is because the 12-25 micron amplitude (Frymann 1971, 938) is such a minute phenomenon that we need to use different parameters to understand it as a felt sense than those used to explain gross body motion. It is not the same as feeling someone's heartbeat or respiration. Only when the practitioner enters a meditative state does the cranial wave make itself audible; a state sometimes referred to as "practitioner neutral" and explained later in detail. Antithetical experiments may also be due to researcher bias as CST is energy work for the most part, and theories of quantum physics explain observer intention skewing outcomes when dealing with energetic phenomena.

The cranial wave is also affected in amplitude and direction by the application of such discreet pressures that our everyday laws of physics do not help to understand what is occurring. Most palpitation in CST is no greater than 5 grams, or about the weight of a nickel. The wave may also change without any pressure exerted whatsoever; the intent of a qualified therapist is sufficient to alter the tide within the recipient's body. The theory behind this subtle intervention is that any additional pressure will encounter either conscious or unconscious resistance from the recipient, the muscles will contract and the treatment will have no effect.

These subtle forces involved are ironically the main impediment to CST's popularity. Many schools of Massage Therapy now offer CST as part of their curriculum, usually a 12-16 hour elective course, and CST is commonly listed as a massage technique among practitioners who claim to be Cranial Sacral Therapists. Therefore, many healthy, active people go to an insufficiently informed Massage Therapist and notice the therapist apparently not doing anything when really what they wanted was a vigorous deep tissue or perhaps an Esalan-style massage. This contrary expectation also creates resistance and thus renders an ineffective treatment.

For the record, Craniosacral Therapy is not massage. Providing CST as a therapeutic intervention requires more than an elective course or two from a massage school. The methods appear simple, but that does not mean one can assume a title of Craniosacral Therapist after a one or two weekend workshop. The real power of this work comes after many months, if not years, of deep meditative states where the critical mind is suspended, when the need to get something done or the anticipation to "fix" someone is let go. In fact, such needs may impede the healing process when energy work is employed strictly for curing problems. What one honestly needs to do is learn to completely relax, for there really is nothing to do. It is the doing itself that gets in the way. This, of course, frustrates the typically hyperactive and hypercritical Western mind to the point of rejecting the idea completely. Even New Age practitioners who are conditioned to operate at a slower, gentler pace and accept theories of subtle energy and alternative methods of healthcare may lack the ability to totally relinquish the urge to "do" something. The cranial wave, the most palpable aspect to what Sutherland began to call the "Breath of Life" toward the end of his career, appears to have inherent within it all the free-flowing health potential one needs. It is the clutter of our minds and the incessant need to be some place other than where we are that ultimately leads to its dysfunction. CST allows two individuals to stop together, to breathe together and to experience together that the present moment contains all that is needed.
Presence

The first step to any bodywork involving subtle energy is for the practitioner to establish presence. This is particularly important for CST. One cannot just lay hands on another and expect to find the Breath of Life. That approach is very much a part of the human condition of wanting; the more one wants a particular something, the more elusive that something becomes. The wanting is merely a continually increasing reinforcement of not already having. Likewise with the cranial wave, the harder one tries to locate the rhythm, the more inert and silent the recipient's body appears and thus the more one becomes obsessed with the process of finding.

Presence requires the establishment of a neutral awareness. On a deep level, presence cannot be created, for it is always there, usually as background noise in the subconscious. Here again, trying to establish presence is not the same as establishing presence. The moment one tries, an agenda is established and the awareness is no longer neutral. This is tricky and yet of paramount importance because all of the therapeutic effects unfold as a result of being completely present by establishing what is called practitioner neutral.

One of the best discussions of establishing this neutral presence comes from Franklyn Sills, a well-known therapist in the cranial field who developed what is known as a biodynamic approach to CST. He explains that the neutral awareness is not about being disengaged or dissociated, but rather becoming fully engaged in being and listening without a plan or prejudice. He describes a technique very similar to many forms of meditation where the practitioner first begins to focus on the breath. Breathing in and breathing out, bring full attention and awareness to the breath as it enters and then leaves the body. Inevitably, the mind will wander; it may be thoughts, feelings, sensations, desires, sound, and so on. As one notices this shift away from the breath, simply acknowledge it and return awareness to breathing. As this polarity continues, the awareness of breathing and the intention to return awareness back to breathing, a still point between the two states emerges. This balanced center between the focus on the breath and being drawn away is a "point or state of balance between the coming and going of your attention and intention (Sills 2001, 82)." From this inner neutral prescence, the practitioner can establish an infinitely wide perceptual field to hold her partner's system within a sense of presence that is grounded by the stillness within.

This concept of stillness is strikingly similar to the Daoist concept of Wuji, Ultimate Emptiness, the boundless space that allows the Dao (Tao), the all that is, to be expressed. It is interesting to note that most Qigong exercises begin with what is called Wuji stance, and CST also typically begins by acknowledging the infinite space within and establishing the practitioner neutral state. The ancient Chinese likened the Wuji to an invisible web through which the Divine manifests its infinite form. Some believe our existence and all of our cumulative experiences to be the vehicle through which the Divine eternally experiences itself, and the infinite Wuji provides the space for the vibrations of life to exist. However, as Livia Kohn keenly notes on page 45 of Ancient Chinese Mysticism:

The Tao cannot be described in ordinary language, since language by its very nature is part of the realm of discrimination and knowledge. Language is a product of the world; the Tao is beyond it--however pervasive and omnipresent it may be. The Tao is transcendent and yet immanent. It creates, structures, and orders the whole universe, yet is not a mere part of it.

This implies that one must abandon all attempts to classify, categorize, and comprehend Dao. The mystery, the Water Element, is beyond our deeply imbedded tendency to analyze and understand. I tend to agree; better to just close the eyes, breathe deeply, and trust in the infinite wisdom of what the Chinese call Qi.
Qi

Traditional Chinese Medicine is primarily based on the understanding (we are only human, after all) of the transformations of Qi, that everything within the Universe is composed of this same substance which eternally undergoes transformation. The ancient masters observed that there is oneness to all of existence and that everything is energetically interconnected at a fundamental level. Modern physics appears to confirm these ancient findings. The cycles of change of all things within Heaven and Earth, including wind, fire, soil, water, plants, animals, insects, humans, planets, stars, space, etc., are caused by and formed from the weaver-less web of Qi.

Qi can be divided into two different aspects, known as Yin and Yang. It is through this duality that all of life manifests: breath in/breath out; male/female; crest of wave/trough of wave; black/white; zero/one and so on. Yin is dependent on Yang, and Yang dependent on Yin. The great nothing contains within it the great one. Yin and Yang mutually create each other, control each other, consume each other and transform into each other. It is through this vibration of Yin and Yang that the Dao is expressed. Successful practitioners of ancient Daoism who train and master the art of balancing Yin-Yang energies were considered immortals; they could harmonize the body with the mind, the mind with the spirit, and finally, the spirit with the surrounding environment (Earth), the universe (Heaven), and the divine (Dao).
Jing & Shen

The question arises, how did they balance Yin and Yang energies? This is a very involved question regarding Daoist alchemy and mostly beyond the scope of this paper however, I will present a few key ideas and methods of neidan, or inner alchemy, which will be important for this work. Essentially, the practitioner will use breathing and guided visualizations of energy flow within the partner's body, the inner forms of Qigong, to help transform Jing (Essence) to Qi (bio-energy) and then Qi to Shen (Spirit).

Together, Jing, Qi and Shen are referred to as the Three Treasurers, and are equivalent to Earth, Life, and Heaven contained within the human system. To the Chinese, they represent the most important of all the body's energies and force fields. However, since we've already established that everything is Qi in various states of transformation, it is helpful to note that Jing is the most Yin form of Qi within our bodies, Shen is the most Yang. Jing refers to the energetic matrix of the body's cells and tissues and also largely refers to our sexual essence when discussing neidan. A male's Jing is his sperm; a female's Jing is associated with her breasts. Jing relates directly with the energy of the Earth and is cultivated in the lower abdomen, just above the sacrum, a location the Chinese call the Lower Dantian, Cauldron, or Cinnabar/Elixir Field.

Shen refers to the subtle energy of the Spirit and is associated with the energy of Heaven. This energy is cultivated and stored in the Upper Dantian, Cauldron, or Cinnabar/Elixir Field, located in the cranium. Through conscious intention, the Shen directs the increased flow of Qi during the transformation process of Jing into Qi and Qi into Shen.

To summarize, we have Yin Earth energy (Jing) cultivation at the sacrum and Yang Heaven Energy (Shen) cultivation in the cranium. This would imply that working with the cranium and sacrum are important aspects of health and immortality. Could this be a mere coincidence?
Working with the Earth

The sacrum is the keystone of the lower body and its good alignment and mobility will have a huge effect on what else can happen within the system. Structurally, if the sacrum is out of place, turned, twisted, stuck or otherwise unhappy, everything else, including the spine, neck, jaw and head will compensate. The word sacrum derives from Latin os sacrum, meaning sacred or holy bone. Energetically, the sacral area is the anatomical seat of the Sacral Chakra and, as already stated, the location of the Lower Dantian. It is the watery realm of our emotions and sexuality and creates our grounding and connection with the energy of the Earth. In the framework of the Three Treasures, Earth Qigong strengthens the Jing and heals the body. Proper cultivation and function at this level is necessary before progressing to the higher energy centers. Thus, working with the Earth is of paramount importance.

Fortunately, the work involved is as simple as bringing awareness to this energy center, no special knowledge is required. One does not need to seek the aid of a therapist or doctor, Qi will naturally gather into this area and circulate if the body is allowed to relax and one breathes mindfully into the lower abdomen.

However, a practitioner may choose to assist her partner with this process of Earth energy cultivation by utilizing one of the most profound techniques in CST called a lumbosacral decompression, commonly referred to as the L5-S1 decompression, developed by John Upledger. This technique will not only help one focus attention into this area and thus increase the transformation of Jing to Qi, the slight decompression of this major joint in the body will signal the nervous system to release the mostly-unconscious muscle contractions that are continually engaged at this complex junction.

Due to the sensitivity of the area, this technique should only be performed with the consent of the partner. The practitioner will be working with the Sacral Chakra, the center of sexuality and emotions, and thus should take care to be mindful and respectful of this sacred center. One should explain where the hands will be placed prior to initiating any contact. Once consent is given, the technique is most easily performed with the partner on a massage table in a supine position.

First establish "practitioner neutral" as previously explained. Once a still and safe listening space is established, the practitioner begins to focus her attention and makes an energetic contact with her partner. She asks her partner to breathe deeply and easily. She knows to go slowly; this process of establishing presence and boundaries may take a while. She is not concerned with time, for there really is only the eternal moment of now. Standing to one side of the table, she asks her partner to roll toward her slightly so she can slip one hand, palm upward, between the legs and cup his sacrum in her palm. She then asks him to roll back to a lying position and gently slides the other hand under her partner at a ninety-degree angle to the first hand, just above the tips of the fingers of the hand cupping the sacrum. The second hand will be cupping the lower lumbar vertebrae. She asks her partner if he is comfortable. The technique will look something like this:

34n1.jpgLower Dantian To cultivate Earth energy, simply lie down, close the eyes, breathe slowly and visualize vital energy flowing into the area indicated by the white circle.

34n2.jpgLumbosacral Decompression The hands apply gentle traction to the sacrum while the recipient breaths deeply and visualizes energy flowing into the area illustrated by the circle.

Once the hands are in place and her partner is comfortable, she again asks him to breathe deeply into the area she is holding. They rest here together for a moment. Slowly she begins to apply a gentle traction towards her partner's feet with the hand that is cupping the sacrum. As noted earlier, the force necessary is about five grams, the weight of a nickel. This slight decompression of the lumbosacral junction can have enormous influence on the relaxation of the whole body. During this hold, she notices any changes in breathing; sighing is a common response.

She returns again to the practitioner neutral. The cranial wave emerges as a felt sense of widening and narrowing of the crests of the ilium; the Yin and Yang phases of the Breath of Life at the sacroiliac joint. She asks her partner to visualize healing Qi flowing into this area as he inhales, mixing with and magnifying the Jing in the Lower Cauldron which begins to overflow with healing energy. They remain here together for as long as they both are comfortable.
Working with Heaven

The Upper Dantian is the gateway to the realm of the Spirit and is located in the head, behind the Third Eye point. This is the energy center where Qi is transformed into its most Yang form, Shen. Practitioners of Heaven Qigong are said to experience expansiveness and no resistance; they are open like the sky. They express unconditional love, compassion for others, accept what is, smile often, and exhibit a natural radiance.

Cultivation and transformation of Shen Qi requires a deeper level of energy awareness. It is said that one must first master Earth Qigong to transform Jing to Qi before the higher level of refinement of Qi to Shen is possible. For this reason, practitioners may want to refrain from working with someone's cranium until one has established a good working relationship.

35n1.jpgUpper Dantian Cultivation of Heaven energy happens at the location of the black circle and requires mastery of the lower levels to transform Qi to Shen and thus connect with universal intelligence and spiritual light.

There are many techniques one can use to work with the human cranium. I will discuss the most common technique in CST, the CV-4 Stillpoint Induction.

Periodically, the cranial wave will momentarily shut down; there will be a cessation of the emptying and filling of the cerebrospinal fluid in the craniosacral system and a pause in the rhythm. This is a natural phenomenon and has been called a stillpoint. Stillpoints have been likened to the re-boot of a computer or resetting a dial back to its original position, and are said to be a time when the system refreshes itself. They are a period of realignment for the nervous system. After several seconds or even minutes, the rhythm spontaneously re-establishes itself.

Amazingly enough, practitioners may perform techniques to cause their partners to go into stillpoint, the most common being a CV-4 Stillpoint Induction.( n2) Inducing a stillpoint can have profound effects on the individual and is usually accompanied by a deep sigh or noticeable release of tension within the body. Many people slip into the unconsciousness of dreaming. Their bodies may begin to lightly twitch, a sign of excess energy freely leaving the body.

Although "CV-4 Stillpoint Induction" sounds very technical and complicated, it is actually a very simple hold. Essentially, the practitioner cradles his partner's head in a specific way to make contact with the occipital bones. From here, he assumes a neutral awareness until the cranial wave appears. At this location, the wave is felt as a widening and narrowing of the partner's occiput. After a few cycles of flexion and extension, slight pressure is applied and held during the Yin phase of narrowing. This pressure creates a barrier to the system's natural transition back to the widening Yang phase. As the practitioner continues to meet the widening tendency of the occiput with a compressive force, the system shuts down and the rhythm stops.

As Laozi points out, the sage understands that nothing is ever perfect…and seeing the mperfection of all things, the sage sees how perfect that is. When one first takes up a CV-4 hold, it never feels perfect, yet it is hopeless to continue adjusting the hands in an effort to get it "right." The occipital bones are different on either side and our hands are also slightly different. One should just accept that this hold will feel slightly imbalanced and settle into emptiness again. The rhythm will come.

There is a profound sense of the unexplainable miracle of life when you hold another person's head in this way and can influence a shift in consciousness.

There is no need to guide the person in any way, the Shen is the Supreme Ruler and knows exactly what it needs for physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being. Simply being aware of this powerful energy center as a gateway to the Divine and treating it with the proper reverence is really all there is to it. The practitioner's job is to induce a still point and then dissolve into the emptiness, into the great Wuji which is the home to all that is.
Transforming Heavens and Earth

The final technique addresses the one remaining Cauldron, the Middle Dantian. This energy center is at the physical location of the heart, thymus gland and solar plexus. It is the house of the Xin, which translates to HeartMind. This location is believed by many to be the master key for deepening one's Qigong practice. With Qi cultivation focused into this center, the harmonious blending of the Yang energy of Heaven mixes with the Yin energy of Earth and brings balance to the body/mind/spirit. Perhaps no better explanation exists than how Roger Janke expressed this idea on page 275 of his Healing Promise of Qi:

Yin Earth and Yang Heaven are like lovers. They rush together and merge into one in your HeartMind. The love Yin and Yang have for each other creates your life. They seek harmony through you. Your being is an expression of the natural love that is innate in the Qi.
Wow! What else is there to say?

The Heaven and Earth hold is the easiest to perform, the hands rest in areas they would normally want to travel to when working on another person's body. This hold is great to use as a closing move because it addresses the Central Channel and facilitates the communication between the partner's cranium and sacrum.

36n1.jpgHeaven and Earth Hold The practitioner's hands are placed under the partner's body around the location of the X's and then instructions are given to unite these two energies into the Middle Dantian, illustrated with the Taiji symbol.

Again, the person is lying in a supine position on a massage table with the practitioner positioned on one side facing the table. After establishing a neutral awareness, gently place one hand, palm up, under the partner's Lower Dantian. If the hand does not slide under easily, use the other hand to rock the hip up so a space is created between the hip and the table. Once the hand is in the correct position, relax the arm and allow Qi to radiate out of P83 into the partner's Sacral Chakra. Place the other hand under the person's neck and gently move the hand until it gently cups the back of the head near GB20, the Gates of Consciousness. Bring the same awareness to the P8 point on this hand.

Have your partner focus awareness to the Upper and Lower energy centers by having him focus on where your hands are in contact with his body. As he breathes in, have him visualize nurturing, radiant Qi flowing into these energy centers. On the exhalation, have him visualize the energy from these two centers flowing into and merging at the Heart. Continue this for several breaths as your thoughts dissolve into emptiness. Once again, the cranial wave will begin to emerge, this time in the most profound and unexpected way. The entire system will seem to rock back and forth as a unit, much like the cradling of an infant or the rolling of the tide along the beach. Both hands will seem to glide superiorly toward the head and then recede and glide back toward the feet. Each time the movement reaches its end point, add a slight pressure in the same direction, giving the occiput and sacrum an extra little nudge. This encourages the dural tube to further release restrictions to its free and normal function, as well as enhances the flow of energy along the Taiji Pole.
The Taiji Pole and Breath of Life

I will endmy discussion with the beginning of human life and the formation of the Taiji Pole. It is, after all, the behind-the-scenes subject of all that has been addressed in this paper. In Chinese energetic embryology, as the father's sperm enters the mother's egg, the polarity differential creates what is called the Heavenly Yang Gate,where Universal Life energy is absorbed and transformed into the Taiji Pole. This pole is seen as a vertical column of white light running from what will become the top of the head down to the perineum. It connects the Three Dantians and links together the seven primary chakras. It houses the Central Channel and establishes the axis around which all the other Extraordinary Channels are formed, they in turn regulate the establishment of the 12 Organ Meridians that form the energy pathways for the movement of Qi throughout the human body.

While the original meaning of the Chinese character for Yin is the shady side of a mountain and Yang depicts the sunny side, the center of the mountain's peak is considered the Taiji, where both Yin and Yang meet. The Taiji Pole is analogous to the central axis of the Earth, the still center around which rotates the entire life of the planet. Similarly, the Taiji Pole is viewed as the stillness within Man, around which a person experiences all the Yin/Yang changes and transformations of his or her life.

Likewise, the biodynamic approach to CST recognizes that embryological forces direct the embryonic cells to create the shape of the body, and places importance on recognition of these formative force patterns which continue throughout the life of the organism. This awareness enhances the ability of the patient to access health as an expression of the original intention of their existence. Form is thought to unfold from stillness; the Dao arises from the Wuji, the implicate ground from which all phenomena arise. Within the cranial field, a phenomenon known as the Long Tide has been perceived and thought to be like a great wind that seems to arise from nowhere and return to nowhere. This slower, subtler aspect to the Breath of Life allows for the formation of an organizing matrix of a human being, generated by an intention of the eternal Soul to create.

The dark image on the left is an illustration of the energy from the Taiji Pole taken from page 189 of Volume 1 of Chinese Medical Qigong Therapy written by Qigong Grandmaster Jerry Alan Johnson. The light image on the right represents Franklyn Sills' interpretation of the Long Tide of the Breath of Life, taken from page 56 of Volume 1 of Craniosacral Biodynamics. I will be silent and let the images speak for themselves.
Conclusion

The craniosacral system is much more than a set of bones, tissues and fluids that medical science can describe and work with biomechanically. It is also a dynamic field of energy and consciousness which comes to life during states of deep meditation. On a fundamental level, we discover that the body is self-healing, self-regulating, and self-integrating. On a spiritual level, with the assistance of some ancient Chinese mysticism, we discover that our focused intention on key energy centers within our body allows for the transformation of our Essence back into the unbound and eternal Source energy.

For the practitioner, the key to this process of discovery lies in one's ability to be silent, to create presence, and to be able to deepen and widen one's field of perception and simply listen. It is in this ability to be still and listen that the truth of the human system reveals its mysteries.

In the Daoist tradition, the Dao is likened to an empty vessel which may be drawn from without ever needing to be re-filled, for it is all that is and all that ever shall be. It fills us again and again. In its emptiness, it is full of all potential. In becoming like an empty vessel, there is the potential for us to be filled. There is the possibility that in the silent emptiness beyond the mind, the universal energy that permeates all that is may make its presence known and something may occur beyond our normal day-to-day existence.

Laozi states that the best teachings occur in silence. I will leave it at that.
Footnotes and References

( n1) These three studies are referred to on websites like quackwatch.com and skepdic.com. It is important to note; however, that the Kazanjian study was to evaluate whether CST was a treatment protocol worthy of reimbursement from Worker's Compensation, and was conducted by Medical Doctors and Physical Therapists who might stand to loose considerable income from Worker's Comp if CST was a covered benefit. Their main argument is that more scientific evidence is needed to conclude that CST was a "benefit to patients."

( n2) Practitioners should note that CV-4 refers to the compression of the fourth cerebral ventricle and has nothing to do with Conception Vessel 4.

( n3) The assumption is that the reader is familiar with meridian theory and thus familiar with Pericardium 8. If not, please refer to the extensive data available on the Internet.
References

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Laozi. Dao De Jing. taken from http://www.chinapage.com/laotze.html

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By Kevin Williams

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