S-1: A drug that is being studied for its ability to enhance the effectiveness of fluorouracil and prevent gastrointestinal side effects caused by fluorouracil. It belongs to the family of drugs called anitmetabolites.

Saline: A solution of salt and water.

Salivary glands (SAL-ih-vair-ee): Glands in the mouth that produce saliva.

Salpingo-oophorectomy (sal-PIN-gl-PIN-go o-o-for-EK-toe-mee): Surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

Salvage therapy: Treatment that is given after the cancer has not responded to other treatments.

Samarium 153: A radioactive substance used in cancer therapy

Saponin: A substance found in soybeans and many other plants. Saponins may help lower cholesterol and may have anticancer effects.

Saquinavir mesylate: A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called protease inhibitors. It interferes with the ability of a virus to make copies of itself.

SarCNU: An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

Sarcoma: A cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels or other connective or supportive tissue.

Sargramostim: A colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of blood cells, especially platelets, during chemotherapy. It is a cytokine that belongs to the family of drugs called hematopoietic (blood-forming) agents. Also called GM-CSF.

SC-70935: A growth factor used to stimulate the production of blood cells during caring cancer chemotherapy. Also called leridistim.

Scans: Pictures of structures inside the body. Scans often used in diagnosing, staging, and monitoring disease include liver scans, bone scans, and computed tomography (CT) or computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In liver scanning and bone scanning, radioactive substances that are injected into the bloodstream collect in these organs. A scanner that detects the radiation is used to create pictures. In CT scanning, an x-ray machine linked to a computer is used to produce detailed pictures of organs inside the body. MRI scans use a large magnet connected to a computer to create pictures of areas inside the body.

SCH 54031: An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called biological response modifiers. It is a cytokine. Also called PEG-interferon alfa-2b.

SCH 66336: An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called enzyme inhibitors.

SCH-58500: A drug that inhibits the growth of tumor cells that express the mutated p53 gene.

Schiller test (SHIL-er): A test in which iodine is applied to the cervix. The iodine colors healthy cells brown; abnormal cells remain unstained, usually appearing white or yellow.

Schwannoma (shwah-NO-ma): A tumor of the peripheral nervous system that begins in the nerve sheath (protective covering). It is almost always benign, but rare malignant schwannomas have been reported.

Scleroderma: A chronic disorder marked by hardening and thickening of the skin. Scleroderma can be localized or it can affect the entire body (systemic).

Screening: Checking for disease when there are no symptoms.

Scrotum: In males, the external sac that contains the testicles.

Scrotum (SKRO-tum): In males, the external sac that contains the testicles.

Scutellaria barbata: An herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat certain medical problems. It may have anticancer effects.

Sebum (SEE-bum): An oily substance produced by certain glands in the skin.

Sebum (SEE-bum): An oily substance produced by certain glands in the skin.

Second cancer: Refers to a new primary cancer that is caused by previous cancer treatment, or a new primary cancer in a person with a history of cancer.

Second-look surgery: Surgery performed after primary treatment to determine whether tumor cells remain.